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â:..â                                    Editor: V.N.Giritharan
2004 55 -
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T.S.Eliot1910- 1930- ȡ 쾢š 'ţ ' Ģ Ǣ Ǣ  ¡. âá á μ (1885-1975) Ҿ Ţ ӨȨ Ģ. Ӿġ ĸ Ȣ ŢǢ , ġž¡ Ţ Ǣ ӨȨ, Ǣ Ţ Ģ ȡ áý . â 𺢸 ȸĸǢ . 'ţ Ļ', Ȣ Ũ¨Ȩ Ȣ. ÿ¢ James Joyce (1882-1941) â ġâá, Ţ ġ 측 (1881-1973) š, ¢ Igor Stravinsky ¡ (1882-1971) 򾨸 Ш¡ . "Make it New" Ģ Ģ . ɡ â Ģ Ţ . Ҿ , Ҿ Ţ¢ ǢŧȢ ɺâ  Ƣ Ţ¢ ¡ 'ţ'. Ţ Ȣ , Ǣ â ġ  , ž .

Ģ Ţ ӾĢ š : 1. , 2. â¡. šš š Ģ Ţ Ǣ Ө, Ţ Ţ âž â. á , 측 Ţ¢ šš ȡ 츢 á Ţ . Ģ â¡ " 
츨" "âЧ Өɸ" Ȣ ɺâ Ƣ¢ Ţ ؾ¾ Ψ¡ Ţ. Ģ ŢǢ '' Ţ . á Ţ¢ â š â Ţ ç â¡Ģ:

    " . . . . . .
    𨼸Ǣ ̾ ."

ġ š âɢ Ƣ, âʉ è¡ Ȣ â Ţ Ũ Ģ Ţ. 1959 ¢ Ģ Ȣɡ:

    "My poetry has obviously more in common with my distinguished contemporaries in America than with anything written in my generation 
in England."

Ģ , ¢á Ҹ âǡħ . Ƹ ը âǡ Irving Babbitt- George Santayana-. Ǣž ŧ Ȣ, Ƣ (Present) â󾾡 Ģ Babbitt  
. Arthur Symons- 'The Symbolist Movement in French Literature' . ĢθǢ Jules Laforgue- Ţ Ģ Ȣ 츢. Laforgue- Ţ Ģ Ţ Ǣ Ţ--Ȣ Laforgue Ũ¡ Ţξ Ţ (Vers Libre). Laforgue- š Blank Verse â Ţ Ģ 
. Ģ ؾ ŢǢ (Conversation Galante, Spleen) Laforgue- . ɢ Ģ Major Poet, Laforgue ý 츢 Ţɢ 񼨾, Ģ ¢ ʿ¡ . Laforgue- Ȣ Ţ Ģ Laforgue â¡ ¡. â Ţ Edmund Wilson Ȣ Ģ:

     "a superior artist. . . more mature than Laforgue ever was"
     (Edmund Wilson, Axel's Castle,Fontana Paperbacks, Collins, 
London, 1961, P. 85.)

ʸ ç Laforgue Ģ . 측 ɢ Ţ è Ǣɡ. Ģ âɡĢ " 측 " žɢ F. R. Leavis- "New Bearings in English Poetry" Ģ ؾɡ.
                                                                      II
Ģ Ţ Ǣ â Ţž.  , Ӹ Ȣθ Ƣ 츢Ǣ ̾ š̸ȡ Ģ. Ǣ ¡âġ š, â ¡, Ţ¢ ϸ ¡ 츢 Ţθ.

    "A large part of any poet's "inspiration" must come
    from his reading and from his knowledge of history."

Ţ Ψ¢ иȡ Ģ. ţ Ţ ģ̇ . Ţ , â¡ ӾĢ Ģ 츢ȡ. ţ š쨸¢ ġ ǡ Ţɢ Ǣ ġ . ţ Ţ¢ â¡ Ȣ Ţ á Ģ Ȣ Ţ Χ âɾĦ, ĸ š¢ š ġ šо Ȣǡ.

Ģ θټ á ħ. Ģ 󾾢. ɡ θǢ Ǣɡ ɨ. Ө Ģ ؾɡ: " ţ ţ Ǣ¡ ." Ƣ ӨȨ ʼ .  
츢, ոէ (Juxtaposition) Ţ Ǣ š ʼ Ȣ. Ţ¢ Ȣר ȡ , ȡ ոէ 򾢨 θǢ .
                                                                     III
Ģ Ţ ɸ â׸ǡ âġ.

1. Ţ-- ɢ â 쨻 (á ž¢ ǻ) áâ Ӿ Ȣ츢. ɢ Ӿ ̾¡ 츢ȡɡ Ģ 'Ǣ ǡ' ȡ. ý ɢ ɢɢ θ šɨ. θ, Ũ Ȣ š 측 츨, ¡ 쨸 Ţ ׸.

2. (The Waste Land)-- Ǣ Ţ. 쨻¡ ġ ĸǢɡ տ¢ 츢. ĸǢĢ 쨻 ¡ ¢ . 츢. ب¡ 쨻Լ ɦȡ ġ ĸǡ 
š 쨻 ž.

3. Ash Wednesday Four Quartets Ţ-- ɢ, ɢɡ ټ 츢ȡ. ŢǢ ɢ š쨸측 Ǣ á 츢ȡ.

Ģ Ţ  ºâ ¡ ٨¢ Ǣɡ Ţ. ŢǢ Ǣ '' š Ģ Ţɢ š츢 ¡.

Ģ м, Ţ¢ Ĩ (Impersonality) š츢ɡ. Ģ , Ţɢ ǢĢ ը š . ǡ Ţ Ţ â ب¢ ̾¡ . Ģ Ţ¡ ž Ⱦ  ǡ .

ɢ , â ž , â ž Ģ Ţ Ǣ Ө¢ ¡ Ҹ 츢. ɢ ȡ ɢâ â  ġ Ǣ¢ ־ Ģ Ţ 츢 
. á, Ţ¢ ھ¢ ڸȡ.

    " ʧ ġ!
    ɡ Ţ, Ҹ ǡ  
    Ȣ . . ."

á츢ۨ. á "Ӹ"¢ Ƣ¡ Ģ Ȣ . á Ţ Ǣ¡ Ţ¢ Ȣ, â¡ Ȣ Ҹ . Ţ Ǣš, ¡, 󾨾 Ţ , á Ţ Ţ θǢ ̸ Ȣ츢. š Ţ ɢ, ġ ۨ 츢. ġ â Ģ ž ¢ ̾ . á ž. ɾǡ ɢƢ (Interior Monologue) иȡ. Ţ¢ Ǣ Ţâ׸ ġ á ɢâ ɡŢ 측𺢸. , ȸ, Ţ¢ ɸ ġ á츢 쨻¢ š, ŧ¡ Ţθ. ɧ á츢 ɡ Ţ¢ Ţθ.

(Preludes) Ţ, Ǣ տ Ȣ 𺢸 츢. Ţ, ŢǢ â .

    " Ǣ Ȣ
    ɸǡ  ; Ȣ즸;

    ¡
    Ţ վ."

" " Ţ¢ þ ̾¡. "ɸ" Ȣ, Ȣ Ţ¢ "" š Ģ ȡ. Ȣ "վ" Ţâ츢ȡ. Ţ¢ ɢ , š ɢ̾ǡ Ţâо.

ŢǢ 츢 ¡ á Ţ Ţ, (Gerontion--) ġ. á ȡ: 򾨾  ġ . Gerontion ȡ, Ţ𼾡:

    ", ¢, , Ȣ
    Ţ.
   
    š Ч?"

Gerontion-- ɢƢ (Interior Monologue). ɢƢ¢ 򾢧¸ âǡ ո 츢  
â:

    "š ţ ¢
     Ÿ ¢ ".

Ţ¢ "ȡ Ǣ¢Ǣ " Ȣ즸ȡ . ɧ Ţ¢ Ţ Ţ¢ 측  ¡ 츢-- ۨ þ ¢, .

(The Waste Land) Ũ ȢҸ ǡ .

    Ţ
    
    ¢ ڧ ¡
    š
    ¢ ק Ȣ Լ

Ţ¢ ھ¢ Ȣ Ȣ ո.  Ũ¢ ɡ Ǣ, Ǣ 츢 Ţ. ¡Ģ ̾ ո. ƨ¢Ģ 츢ǢĢ .

Ţ Ҿá 츢. ţ Ţ¢ , ¢, Ţм ո. ɢ , Ȣ ھĢ Ţ и. Ţè Ө  . š ¾ šŢ , ب ţ ɢɢ 쨸 þĢ츢. ġ ŨȨ ȡ 
â Ȣ¦ á ¡ Ţ, ţ Ţ ġȢ š 츢. Ȣ , ָ ġ, (Middleton), â (Richard Wagner), áɢŠ (Petronius), , š (Nerval) Ǣ ĸǢĢ Ǣ Ǣ츢.

Φǡ 측 Ģ Ţá 󧾨 츢¨. Ȣ â¡ Ģ , þ ž, Ģ âǢ 츽 . á Ţ¢ Ӹ â Ţ .

̾ 1921-- ʺâ ؾ. Ģ þ â á ʼ ȡ. â ̾ 츢Ţ--Ģ ǡŢ ܼ. þ о: ġ ̾ ã¡ ŢŨ ¡ ̾ 츢 Ţ Ţ¢ 쾢 ŢŢ. --Ģ ġ ŢŢ , Ȣ 
ȡ ̾¢ Ҿ â (ɢ ú). ھ Ǣ Ӿ Չ측 측. Ģ þ¢ Ţè 츢. ɽ . Ũ ¢ ҽ ǻ  Ţ, ڿ ƢŢ 
ȡ. Ţ ھ ɡ Ȣ 󧾸.

Ģ (1965) ռ Ƣ Ģ Ţ Valerie Eliot Ţ¢ þ ټ Ǣ¢: Facsimile and Transcript of the Draft of the Waste Land. ռǡ 󾨾 Ȣ. '' . Ȣ ̾ Ȣ Χ Ģ Ȣר 츢ȡ. Ģ Ȣ츢ȡ. ɡ ţ Ģ Ǣħ

    "just a piece of rhythmical grumbling"

Ȣ š ġ.
                                                                      IV
Ţ Ȣ Ģ θ ը 째 Ȣ . Ļ Ƣ Ȣɡ. ۨ¾ ۨ š쨸 , Ƣ  ը Ţ򾢧ħ ϸ . Ļ ¡ ٨ Ǣž. ¢ ħš , Ȩ ﺢ š ħš Ӹš иȡ. Ļ ը 츢 ϸ Ţâ , Ǣ ç ¢ É 측è 측𼡸 ոȡ.  
Ţ š쨸¢ 쨸 Ȣ , ۨ Ţ , 째 Ţ¡ž ȡ Ģ. 측  ը ç.

Ţ Ţ Ţ Ǣž Ģ Ģ Ȣɡ. Ţ " Ƣ¢, ɢ  ξ" Ǣи ȡ. Ţ¢ ɡ (autonomy) Ȣ š 츨 Ģ Ţ . Ţ ǢŨ Ţ Ҹ ¾ ȡ. Ţ , Ģ . Ţ 측 Ũĸ 
츢 , "ھ" ڸȡ. ̾ Ţ Ȣ Ģ Ө Ǣθ.

    1. Ţ Չ θ Ţ Ţ츢 ¾. Ţ θ ɡ Ţ ŧ.

    2. ȡ θ, ھ측ý Ţ .

Ȣ Ţ Ȣ '' Ģ 򧾡Ģá Ȣ , Four Quartets ը ھ Ţ ɨ . Ģ Four Quartets-- ŢǢ 츢ɨ¡ վɡ. ŢǢ Ģ Ƣ , Ţ Ģ Ţ¢ Ţ ʸ. (Framework) ¡â  
ȡ Ţ ը ¡â â â. Ţ Four Quartets ŢǢ . ɡ á ŢǢ Ţ Ģ Ţ . Four Quartets , ĸ Ȣ θ ¡ Ǣи. š Quartets-- Ŋ Ȣ. Burnt Norton Ȣ Ţ. East Coker Ȣ. Dry Salvages Ȣ. Little Gidding Ȣ. Quartet--Ǣ Ӿ̾ , ý, ǡ á. Ũ ʦ¡Ȣ Four Quartets-- ؾ¢츢ȡ Ģ.

The Hippopotamus (1917) Mr. Eliot's Sunday Morning Service (1918) ŢǢ , Ȣ 츢 ؾ Ģ 1927-- 򧾡Ģá Ȣɡ. Ģ Ȣ Ȣ E. M. Forster ġâ,

    "What he (Eliot) seeks is not revelation but Stability."

ȡ. 츢 Ģ и . ġŢ Ţ¡ɨ , ɢɢ ź, á츢 ɢ ź. Ģ ŢǢ 쾢 Ȣ 쨸Ǣ Ȣ, 쨸측 Ţ 츢. Ţ ɢ 
ġ ڸ 쨸 ʸ. ̸Ǣ Ţ '' θ Ǽ š̸ȡ. о Ģ .

Ţ¢ Ƣ ý Ţ Ţ Ţġ. Ģ Ţ¢ Ƣ Ȣ, Ţ ϸ, ׸ ġ Ш¡ Ȣ Ţ.

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