உலக இலக்கியத்தைச் செழுமைப்படுத்திய பல்வேறு நாடுகளையும் சேர்ந்த படைப்பாளிகள்
பற்றிய , ஆங்கில இணையத் தளங்களில் காணப்படும் தகவல்களைத் திரட்டித் தரவுள்ளோம்.
அந்த வகையில் பியோதர் தஸ்தாவ்ஸ்கி பற்றிய, அவரது படைப்புகள் பற்றிய இணையத்
தளங்களைப் பற்றிய இணைப்புகளை, விபரங்களைத் தொகுத்துத் தரவுள்ளோம். உலக இலக்கியம்
பற்றிய பதிவுகளுக்கு அனுப்பப்படும் படைப்புகளையும் இனி இப்பகுதியிலேயே
பிரசுரிப்போம். 'குற்றமும் தண்டனையும்' (Crime
and Punishment), 'கரமசோவ் ச்கோதரர்கள்' (The
Brothers of Karamazov) , 'அசடன்'
(The Idiot) போன்ற
புகழ்பெற்ற நாவல்களைப் படைத்தவரிவர்.
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Crime and Punishment
This confusion became more and more intense. As he went down the stairs, he
even stopped short, two or three times, as though suddenly struck by some
thought. When he was in the street he cried out, "Oh, God, how loathsome it
all is! and can I, can I possibly. . . . No, it's nonsense
and for no reason whatever, plunged loudly and gratuitously into the general
conversation. Above everything I wanted to pick a quarrel with the Frenchman;
and, with that end in view I turned to the General, and exclaimed in an
overbearing sort of way--indeed, I think that I actually interrupted him--that
that summer it had been almost impossible for a Russian to dine anywhere at
The Brothers Karamazov
For the present I will only say that this "landowner" - for so we used to call
him, although he hardly spent a day of his life on his own estate - was a
strange type, yet one pretty frequently to be met with, a type abject and
vicious and at the same time senseless. But he was one of those senseless
persons who are very well capable of looking after their worldly affairs, and,
apparently, after nothing else.
The Dream Of a Ridiculous Man
I am a ridiculous person. Now they call me a madman. That would be a promotion
if it were not that I remain as ridiculous in their eyes as before. But now I
do not resent it, they are all dear to me now
A Raw Youth
I cannot resist sitting down to write the history of the first steps in my
career, though I might very well abstain from doing so. . . . I know one thing
for certain: I shall never again sit down to write my autobiography even if I
live to be a hundred. One must be too disgustingly in love with self to be
able without shame to write about oneself. I can only excuse myself on the
ground that I am not writing with the same object with which other people
write, that is, to win the praise of my readers. It has suddenly occurred to
me to write out word for word all that has happened to me during this last
I will say at once that Stepan Trofimovitch had always filled a particular
role among us, that of the progressive patriot, so to say, and he was
passionately fond of playing the part -- so much so that I really believe he
could not have existed without it.
Some of the passengers by this particular train were returning from abroad;
but the third-class carriages were the best filled, chiefly with insignificant
persons of various occupations and degrees, picked up at the different
stations nearer town. All of them seemed weary, and most of them had sleepy
eyes and a shivering expression, while their complexions generally appeared to
have taken on the colour of the fog outside.
A strange requirement. I did not resent it, I am a timid man; but here they
have actually made me out mad. An artist painted my portrait as it happened:
"After all, you are a literary man," he said. I submitted, he exhibited it. I
read: "Go and look at that morbid face suggesting insanity."
Best Russian Short Stories
The other day I saw a wedding... But no! I would rather tell you about a
Christmas tree. The wedding was superb. I liked it immensely. But the other
incident was still finer. I don't know why it is that the sight of the wedding
reminded me of the Christmas tree. This is the way it happened:
The Peasant Marey
It was the second day of Easter Week. The air was warm, the sky was blue, the
sun was high, warm, and bright, but there was only gloom in my heart. I was
wandering behind the prison barracks, examining and counting off the pales in
the sturdy prison stockade
The Grand Inquisitor
we have all heard of miracles being wrought ever since the 'age of miracles'
passed away to return no more. We had, and still have, our saints credited
with performing the most miraculous cures; and, if we can believe their
biographers, there have been those among them who have been personally visited
by the Queen of Heaven.
As Ivan Matveitch had already in his pocket his ticket for a tour abroad (not
so much for the sake of his health as for the improvement of his mind), and
was consequently free from his official duties and had nothing whatever to do
that morning, he offered no objection to his wife's irresistible fancy, but
was positively aflame with curiosity himself.
He yawned, stretched, and at last opened his eyes completely. For two minutes,
however, he lay in his bed without moving, as though he were not yet quite
certain whether he were awake or still asleep, whether all that was going on
around him were real and actual, or the continuation of his confused dreams.
Then suddenly, for some reason or another, I raised my eyes--and felt my very
heart leap within me! For you had understood what I wanted, you had understood
what my heart was craving for. Yes, I perceived that a corner of the curtain
in your window had been looped up and fastened to the cornice as I had
suggested should be done; and it seemed to me that your dear face was
glimmering at the window
Notes From The Underground
I am a sick man.... I am a spiteful man. I am an unattractive man. I believe
my liver is diseased. However, I know nothing at all about my disease, and do
not know for certain what ails me. I don't consult a doctor for it, and never
have, though I have a respect for medicine and doctors. Besides, I am
extremely superstitious, sufficiently so to respect medicine, anyway (I am
well-educated enough not to be superstitious, but I am superstitious).
A Gentle Spirit A Fantastic Story
Oh, while she is still here, it is still all right; I go up and look at her
every minute; but tomorrow they will take her away - and how shall I be left
The Insulted and Injured
I am not a mystic. I scarcely believe in presentiments and divinings, yet I
have, as probably most people have, had some rather inexplicable experiences
in my life.
Tears of Joy
Has God moved me up to have a glimps
Out the window of this life
Every day I find myself in new tears
Tears of joy, there is no sadness
I saw men bowing in a movie
They were bending down in honour
Of the Great Buddha, a jade statue before them
I said to myself, I cound not do that.
But then the answer came
That joy that travels in my eyes
I could bow in front of Buddha
Tears rained at the thought of
This great manifestation of the One.
I could bow down in front of the Son, Jesus
I could bow down in front of the Friend, Muhammad
Tears have told me the longing of my heart
To be of service, please God give me joy.
The Brothers Karamazov - Study Guide
The Brothers Karamazov study guide contains a biography of Fyodor Dostoevsky,
literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full
summary and analysis...
Biography of Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881)
Mikhailovich Dostoevsky was born October 30, 1821, in Moscow's Hospital for
the Poor. He was the second of seven children born to a former army surgeon,
who was murdered in 1839 when his own serfs poured vodka down his throat until
he died. Following a boarding school education in Moscow with his older
brother Mikhail, Fyodor was admitted to the Academy of Military Engineers in
St. Petersburg in 1838. He completed his studies in 1843, graduating as a
lieutenant, but was quickly convinced that he preferred a career in writing to
being mired in the bureaucratic Russian military. In 1844 he published a
translation of Balzac's Eugenie Grandet, and he followed this two years later
with his first original published work, Poor Folk, a widely-acclaimed short
novel championed by the influential critic Vissarion Belinsky.
His works over the next three years were not as well accepted. The "literary
lights" whose acquaintance he had made started to treat him with contempt and
mockery. Under the influence of Belinsky, Dostoevsky turned to a materialist
atheism. In 1847, he broke with Belinsky's group to join the socialist
Petrashevsky group, a secret society of liberal utopians, where he associated
himself with the most radical element.
On April 23, 1849, Dostoevsky was arrested with other members of the
Petrashevsky circle and was sentenced to death. He was placed in solitary
confinement in the Petropavlovsky Fortress for eight months. During this time,
Tsar Nikolai I changed his sentence but ordered that this change only be
announced at the last minute. On December 22, Dostoevsky and his fellow
prisoners were led through all the initial steps of execution, and several of
them were already tied to posts awaiting their deaths when the reprieve was
Dostoevsky's sentence of eight years' hard labor in a Siberian prison was
reduced to four, followed by another four years of compulsory military
service. During the latter, he married the widow Marya Dmitrievna Isaeva, with
whom he returned to St. Petersburg in 1859.
Dostoevsky's harrowing near-execution and his terrible years of imprisonment
made an indelible impression on him, converting him to a lifelong intense
spirituality. These beliefs formed the basis for his great novels.
After his release, Dostoevsky published a few short works, including "Memoirs
from the House of the Dead" (1860-1861), which was based on his prison
experiences, in the journal Time, which he had co-founded with his brother
Mikhail. In 1862, he made his first trip abroad, to England, France, Germany,
Italy, and Switzerland. While abroad, he had an affair with Apollinaria
Suslova, a young and attractive student whom Dostoevsky considered an
intellectual equal. He also made observations on Western society that fueled
his rejection of Western philosophies as models for Russian society.
In 1863, Time was banned, so Fyodor and Mikhail founded another magazine,
Epoch, which in 1864 published the complex Notes from Underground, generally
considered the preface to Dostoevsky's great novels.
In that same year, both Marya Dmitrievna and Fyodor's beloved brother Mikhail
died, leaving Dostoevsky saddled with debts and dependents. Apollinaria
Suslova declined a marriage proposal, and in an attempt to win money through
gambling, Dostoevsky mired himself further in debt. With creditors at his
heels and with debts of around 43,000 rubles, Dostoevsky escaped abroad with
175 rubles in his pocket and a "slave contract" with bookseller F. T.
Stellovsky. This agreement stipulated that if Dostoevsky did not produce a new
novel by November 1, 1866, all rights to Dostoevsky's past and future works
would revert to Stellovsky.
Time passed, and Dostoevsky, preoccupied with a longer, serialized novel, did
no work on the book he had promised Stellovsky until at last, on the advice of
friends, he hired the young Anna Grigorievna Snitkin as his stenographer. He
dictated The Gambler to her, and the manuscript was delivered to Stellovsky on
the very day their agreement was to expire. Through November, Dostoevsky
completed the longer novel Crime and Punishment, which was published that year
to immediate and abundant success. Fyodor proposed to Anna, and they soon were
wed on February 15, 1867.
This second marriage brought Dostoevsky professional and emotional stability.
Anna tolerated his compulsive gambling, managed his career, and nursed him
through depression and epilepsy. His great works, notably The Idiot (1868),
Demons (1871-1872, also known as The Devils or mistranslated as The
Possessed), and The Brothers Karamazov, were all written in this last phase of
Despite this relative success, the Dostoevskys were dogged by the massive
debts left by Mikhail's death and Fyodor's gambling until about 1873. At this
point, Anna became his publisher and he (according to his wife) gave up
gambling. Their newfound financial stability enabled the Dostoevskys to
purchase the house they had been renting in 1876, and between 1877 and 1880,
Dostoevsky worked on The Brothers Karamazov, regarded by many as the apex of
his career. During these last years of his life, he enjoyed prominence in his
public life as well as his literary career.
Fyodor Dostoevsky died on January 28, 1881, of complications related to his
epilepsy. At the funeral procession in St. Petersburg, his coffin was followed
by thirty to forty thousand people. His epitaph reads, "Verily, verily, I say
unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth
alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit," which is the quotation
Dostoevsky chose for the preface of The Brothers Karamazov.
Dostoevsky is one of the first writers to explore the ideas of psychoanalysis
in his works. His religious ideas are still relevant in theological debate. He
also is one of the seminal creators of the ideas of existentialism. Despite
his varying success during his lifetime, today Dostoevsky is considered to be
one of the preeminent Russian novelists—indeed, one of the preeminent
novelists—of all time.