logo.gif (31909 bytes)pathivukal.gif (1975 bytes)
â:..â                                 Editor: V.N.Giritharan
2002 30 -
 Ţ
Ţ ? ads@pathivukal.com
Computer Image
Computer Training!
[Ţ ]
!..
š! '׸' Ȣ и çȡ. á ؾ . '׸Ǣ Ȣ Ţħ . и ̾¢ š վ â.  ׸Ǣ Ţ Ģ Inaimathi, Inaimathitsc tsc Ţ editor@pathivukal.com . 𼡦 м âŢ ȡ. ׸'Ǣ ҧš â¡ Ӹ⢠Ȣ . Ӹâ ¡Ţ 𼡦 Ȣ ոȡ. '׸'Ǣ Ǣġ . и Ţ Ҹ Ӿʾ. š ž ¢ ¨, ¨ â ʸ.  '׸'Ǣ ׸ ̾¢ Ҹ Ǣ Ţơ Ţ ŢҸ Ȣ Ӹâ ʾ ž ġ. 
DownloadTamil Font
.. 
Ǣ Ţ. Ģ š Ţ : editor@pathivukal.com
!
...
ŢŢ ׸ Ƣ׼ Ҿ ټ Ǣ.

! Ţ ׸ .

׸Ǣ ŢŢ ̾ . Ţ .

Ũ , á š . .     editor@pathivukal.com

ȢŢ
ĸ Ӿ ϯ

츢 â

                     . þ, ɼ.

Ϩ !

Enrico Fermi1934 ⢠â Ģ Ţﻡ , â [Enrico Fermi] Ӿ Ӿ ԧɢ á Ţ, ȡ츢ɡ. ɡ â Ҹ , â¡ ! ý Ţ׸ ¡ Ҿá . Ҿ ţ ġ Ȣ ̸ Ȣ! ĸ 츢 Ţ𼾡 ȡ ɡ. ¢ ԧɢ â, á Ҿ ú ̽ , Ҿ ĸ [Transmutation] ! ɡ Ȣ и ú Ө¢ â ȢŢ! θ â, Ģ, Ģ¢ ԧɢ ǡ , Ţ Ţ, Ţﻡɢ âŢ.

First Atomic Reactor

Ǣ£ " ú" [Applied Chemistry] Ƣ & š [Ida & Walter Noddack] Ţﻡ , ¢ ¡ Ȣ, " ġ ԧɢ á , ̸ǡ â" ؾ ¢. ¡ â Ţ, ǡ 츢 Ǣɡ! ý Ÿ ǡ Ǣ Ϩ ¡. Ţﻡ ŢǢ, 쾢 ξ Ϩ , ¢ ¡ .  ¡ š [Physicists] Ȣ, ԧɢ á Ţ, ĸ 츢 ɡ. Ţﻡ Ϩ Ш Ǣ 򨾧 .

Ǩ ӾĢ Ţ츢 ¢

á Ţ ը [Nuclear Bombardments] á¢ Ţﻡ , Ȣ . Ӿġ Ţﻡɢ 𧼡 [Otto Hahn] ռ, 30 Ţ¡Ǣ ¡ ¡Ȣ, Ţﻡɢ Ģ ¢ [Lise Meitner]. , ¢ Ө á Ţ, ԧɢ á , "Ҧá𧼡 ɢ" [Protoactinium] ĸ . ¢ áɾ, 1938 ţ , 짆 Ÿ [Nobel Institute, Stockholm] á . â Ȣ Ţ츢 â â ⢠ҾŢ, Ȣ â â ã â.

Fission of Uranium

ã â " " [Irradiation] , á ԧɢ Ϩ Ȣ¨ Ȣ, ԧɢ á 츢, Ӿ ӾĢ Ϩ 򾾡 ɢ¢ 𧼡 , , â á [Fritz Strassman] 1938 Ȣɡ. â ʾ 𧼡 , ţɢ Ш¡Ǣ, Ģ ¢ âŢ. Ũ ¢ Ţ, 𧼡 á â [Otto Robert Frisch] Ҿ Ȣ Ţš, "" [Nature] âʉ Ǣ£ Ȣ Ţ ؾ, " " [Nuclear Fission] ¢. Ϩ ᢠ¢, â ӾĢ Ǩ â ĸ Ţ츢, á Ţﻡɢ.

Ţ .

2500 θ , ɢ Ϩ Ȣ Ţ츢¨ Ţﻡɢ ¡ 츢ȡ. Ƣ¢ "Atomos" ȡ â ġ . Ģ Atom . ..460-370 θǢ ž ɢ â [Democritus] ؾ Ţ ¾, [Atomic Theory] [Matter] , â¡, , ¡ [Uncompressed], Ƣ ¡  [Particle] . ž . Ȣ . 츧 и. Ȩ. ¨. Ǣ¢ ¡ . Ǣ , , , ¡ ǡ ɨ. Ǣ ɢ  Ǣ θ ̸. ¡, Ǣ š. Ӽ ž, ž Ȣɒ. â Ţ ¾, ţ " 쾢 ƢŢ" [Conservation of Energy & Matter] ʧĢ.

ž ɢ ɢ , Ϩ Ȣ, Ȣ Ţ 츨 [Sub Atomic Particles] Ȣ Ȣ 츢ȡ Ӧ ǡ [Samuel Glasston] ؾ "Ϻ쾢¢ " [Source Book on Atomic Energy] Ӿ 򾢧 Ȣ ¢츢ȡ. Ȣ, Ǣ Ȣ, 쾢 Ȣ ƢŢ Ȣ ž ġ¢ θ Ȣ.

Atomic Pattern

Atomic Pattern

á 񧽡츢¢, 튼 ɢ

1,300,000 â Ǣ

ɡ ! ɡ Ϩ Ũ 򾾢! 츨 Ȩ . Ш 񧽡츢 [Tunneling MicroScope] Ţ ǡŢ [Scanning] [Computerized Image] Ţ Ȣ ! 8 Ģ á ޺¢ ɢ¢ 1 Ģ â [cubic mm] 100 Ģ Ģ [10 19 ⃢] ! 튼 [Tungten] ɢ 1,300,000 â á 񧽡츢 [Electron Microscope] Ţ¢ Ǣ [Atomic Patterns] ġ. Ǣ â š , Ǣ [Molecule] Ϩ, š ġ.

Ũ ĸ . â , Ǣ, , [Copper], , ɢ ġ ¡ɨ [Stable]. ɡ Ҿ ԧɢ, â, ٧ɢ, , ġɢ ¨ â , [Unstable] ĸ [Heavy Elements]. Ũ 106 ĸǢ 88 ¢ . Ȩ Ţġ, Ȣ ĸǢġ ɨ. 92 ĸ ¢ ¡ . ĸǢ ɢ¡š,  Ȣ 𼡸š ¢ ڸ. ý â Ã [H2], á š [Oxygen] [H2+O-->H2O] . , Ȣ ĸ ڸ "" [Molecules] ú š.

, â , Ɋ , ŢﻡɢǢ Ţ ¾¢, Ţ â . â , Ţ Χ 쾢 . ը á [Electrons] [Elliptical] ţ¢ Ȣ ո. Ţ ҧá ɢ¡š, áۼ 󧾡 . Ǣ Ţ Ǣ 츢. 丢Ǣ¡ [Nucleons] ҧá [Positive], á [Negative], á [Neutral] [Electrical Charge] . á, ҧá, á ¨Ÿ [Sub atomic Particles] . Ģ 츨 â ¡ , 10 Ģ Ģ [10 12 ⃢] 丢Ǣ¡ Ţġ!

, ٱ, Ͽ,

ĸ [Atomic Number] , ҧáǢ 쨸 Ȣ. ĸ ú ̽ ۨ . ĸ ⢠Ũ¢ [Periodic Tables of Elemets] ڸ. [Atomic Mass Number] , Ţ á ҧá 쨸 . "츢Ǣ¡" . [Atomic Weight] ĸ Ţ ҧá á Ȣ . [Relative Mass]. ⢠[Carbon12] Ţ 6 ҧá, 6 . ⢠6, 12, 12.00000000. ⢠8 Ǣ , ĸǢ ¡, ⢠츢 θ. ý, Ӿ Ǣ ĸ à ҧá𼡨 . 1. 1. 1.0078.

ĸ [Isotopes] ¢ġ Ȣ ¢ġ . ȡ, Ţ ҧá 쨸 , á 쨸 ĸ. ý Ã ĸ . â [Deuterium] ҧá 1, á 1. â [Tritium] ҧá 1, á 2.

Carbon Isotopes

â12, â13, â14 ⢠. ԧɢ238 ԧɢ235. ԧɢ238 : 92 [ҧá 92, á 146], : 238. : 238.03. ԧɢ235 : 92 [92 ҧá, 143 á], : 235. ¢ ԧɢ U238 Ţ: 99.286% U235 Ţ: 0.714% ԧɢ U235 ɡ [Spontaneous Fission] Ԩ. ԧɢ U235 , ٧ɢ Pu239, â Th233 Ԩ¨. ġ Ϻ쾢 Ǣ, ԾǢ U235, Pu239, Th233 ب¡ [100%] ب¡ [Small% Enriched] â째ġ [Fuel Rods] θ.

ĸǡ ԧɢ, â, ٧ɢ, , ġɢ ž ý ? ġǢ Ţ 丢Ǣ¡ [ҧá á] 񽢨 Ȣ Ţġ. ¡ ġǢ ̨ á, ҧá 쨸¢ . á ҧá [Neutron Proton Ratio] = 1 [ո]. ԧɢ [U235] á145 ҧá92 = 1.55 Ţ Ȣ á .

â, â, ý â

ĸǢ U235 , á Ţ , Ţ á 쨸 , U235 ǡ â, 쾢 [Binding Energy] Ǣ¡, á . Ȣ 2 á U235 츨 츢 ̸ [Fission Products] 4 á Ǣ. š á 쨸 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 [Geometric Progression] Ȣ 쾢 񼡸 츢. á " â" [Super Critical Reaction] θ. ¢ á Ţ [Neutron Absorbers] ѨŢ, 쨸 ̨ Ȣ Ţ. " â" [Sub Critical Reaction] . Ĩ¢ á Ţ Ȣ, 츢 , á Ũ, "ý â" [Critical Reaction] .

Nuclear Chain Reaction

â š ԾǢ . ¢ [Reactor Control] ý â, â ¡ . á [Prompt Critical] [Shut Down Rods] θ . ý â 쾢 ¢ á . 쾢 š ̨ θ. á , Ǣ¡ 쾢 Ȣ .

ϯ¢ . Ţ 200 MeV 쾢 Ǣ¡. U235 ž, Ȣ á Ǣ ȸ. á [Muliplication Factor] K=1 ȡ á ¡ Ţ θ . K=0.5 ȡ á 쨸 Ȣ θ. K=1.006 ȡ á ո ¢ 쾢 Ũ θ. K>1.5 ȡ ! ¢ á ͸! θ Ĩ и . K>2, 2.5, 3 ȡ Ƣ Ţ !

Ը , â측Ţ ¢!

ĸ , Ĩ , á Ţﻡɢ â측 Ţ. Ȣ , [Niels Bohr, Denmark], Ģ¡ ġ, , ԃ Ţ [Leo Szilard, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner, Hungery], â [Enrico Fermi, Italy], [Hans Bethe Germany], 𧼡 â [Otto Frisch, Vienna] ¡. Ǣ â측Ţ ܼǢ ¡Ȣ Ţﻡɢ , [Manhattan Project] Ţﻡɢ á [Robert Oppenheimer] Ĩ¢, ĊĢ [Leslie Groves] á ⢠셢, ġ ¡ ¡â .

Ƹ ġŢ Ÿ [Metallurgical Laboratory], , ӾĢ 1942 7 Ĩ ɡ. CP1 [Chicago Pile-1] ϯĨ ʨ Ģ Ţﻡɢ, â ¡. [Arthur Compton], Ģ¡ ġ, ԃ Ţ, š [Walter Zinn] Ȣ ϯ . , ź [Unshielded], [Uncooled] . ¢ 5.5 ԧɢ238, 36 ԧɢ 쨅 â [Graphite Spheres] ý¢ " " [Cubic Lattice] . Ţ ӾĢ áǢ Ÿ 츢 344 â ʸ . , Ţ 1 Ģ . š [Watts] 쾢 Ǣ . Ţ ɸ, â ʨ .

â Ǣ â ԧɢ , â ĸǢ . ϯ и á Ţ¡ 7 " " [Cadmium Rods] ШǸǢ Ѩ . â ơ , á ¢ ¡á . ШǸǢ á "á " [Boron Steel] Ţ. ШǸǢ á ʨ٨ [Boron Trifluoride] "á ɢ" [Neutron Monitors] á [Neutron Flux] 񸡽 .

á ԧɢ235 [U235] , Ǩ . Ÿ á U235 . ɡ á ԧɢ238 [U238] ׼ , ٧ɢ239 [Pu239] ڸ. á Pu239 츢 츢 쾢 ظ

Atomic Pile

17 á , ý , ʨ ׸ â . 1942 ʺ 2 3:25 P.M. â¡,  , Ţ¡ ţ [George Weil] ھ 츢 , K=1.0006 á 쨸 Ţâ Ӿ Ӿ â [Nuclear Chain Reaction] ¢ " Ը" [Atomic Age] . â â ɨ â Ţﻡ , , ġ, Ţ, š ¡ Ţ 42 ɢ¢ , 󿢸  . ĸ Ӿ ϯ 28 Ѩ . â Ȣ, Ȣ Ƣ¢ [Code Language] Ƹ á ɡ [James Bryant Conant] ¢, "Ģ Ҿ ĸ " .

, Ϻ쾢¢ , â

â 1901 29 Ģ¢ á â . Ȩ, Ĩ, â, 쾢 . ¾ħ ɡ. Ƹ, áŢ Ǣ , á Ƹ áâá ¡Ȣ. 슧 ¾ 21 ¾ ȡ. 1934 Ӿ â Ţ 츾 ¾ [Theory of Beta Decay] Ţ. 1932 âʉ Ţﻡɢ Ţ á Ϩ , ӾĢ ¡ Ţ, ԧɢ [Natural Uranium] 츢, â , ԧɢ ý ĸ [Trans Uranium Elements] š츢. 1938 â â ӊġɢ [Mussolini] ¢ ţ ȡ. â , Ģ , â측 츢 Ţ.

Ը š ĸ Ţ , â ! Ƹ 1942 ʺâ â Ҹ Ӿ ϯ¢, Ӿ " â" [Nuclear Chain Reaction] , Ӿ Ƣ, Ӿ 쾢 ý š Ţﻡ šɢ Ǣ ţɡ. 1946 Ӿ Ƹ áâ á ¡Ȣ , 1950 ġ F.R.S [Fellow of Royal Society] ɢ Ţը .

1954 28 53 ¾ á Ţ ¢ ɡ. Ũ Ţ â측, â 50,000 " â â" [Enrico Fermi Award] . Ţ â ӾĢ â측, â Ǣ! 1966 â측 𧼡 , á, ģ ¢ â â Ǣ. 100 â ĸ š "" [Fermium] â .

Ӹ|Ţ| 츢  
â :  .,â 2000