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ȢŢ
Ţ񧸡 š¢ 
2001 ŢǢ ½
[2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Express And 
Mars Rover Flights]

   . þ B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear) ɼ

" â¡ Ǣ šɢ ø Ţ š ŢǢ Ţﻡɢ Ţ â " -Ɋ [German Astronomer Johannes Kepler] 
Jeyabarathan2003 27 š 60,000 θ , է ⧠𺢨, ż â측Ţ Ǣ츢ȡ.  ġ¢ θ 󿢸 ŢǢ ġȢ 츢 츢!  ŢǢ¢ Ȣ ħ츢 š¢ . š ո ̨ 34.7 Ģ !  â 𺢨 , 284 θ ̾! â측Ţ ŢǢ Ǣ , Ţ [National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)] š Ţ!  Ţ , Ţ Ţﻡɢ 1964 š â-4 Ţ , ӾĢ ¢ á.  1975 Ũ ŢŢ š .  츢  [Viking Probes] š , ġθ âŢ!  1996 "š Ţ" [Mars Global Surveyor], "š " [Mars Path Finder] ŢǢ .  ¢ 츢 ʨ š 츢, ¢Ģ ¢ Ģ 츢, ŢǢ ġȢ ɨ â! 

Mission To Mars

¢ [Millennium] 2000 , ŢǢ Ш Ţ [European Space Agency (ESA)] š Ȣ â ŢǢ ɸ Ȣ ¡ Ȣ ȡ.  š Ǣ ¢â š ̾ 츢 , ŢŢ š [Probing Rovers] , Ҿ â ½Ǣ ¡ Ȣ¡.

š á Ӿ šɢ

Ǣţ š ġ¢ θ ĸ 츢ȡ. 1610 šɢ ĢĢ¡ (1564-1642) Ӿ Ӿ ħ츢¢ š ø Ţ , Ȣ ž ȢŢ.  šɢ ֿ á [Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)] θǡ 째Ǣ  , Ȣ Ģ Ȣ .  Ш¡ Ɋ (1571-1630), á š Ǣ  , š ⨠ţ¢ [Elliptical Orbit] Ȣ ո 1609 ӾӾ ȢŢ. 

Mars & Earth

Ţﻡɢ â¡ 䦃 [Christiaan Huygens(1629-1695)] 1659 , š [24 ] Ũ , Ũ.  Ģ Ţﻡɢ ¡ɢ ɢ [Giovanni Cassini (1625-1712)] Ģ š  [24:40 Hours] .  š Ǣ ɢ [Polar Ice Caps] ħ츢 ӾĢ ɢ!  째 áɨ [Planet Uranus] ŢĢ  [William Herschel (1738-1822)], ȡθ Ƣ š¢ ɢ Ǣ ġ ȢŢ.   Ţ š Ǣ , ¢ 23.5 ʸâ , 23.98 ʸâ . 

1877 Ģ šɢ ҽ ¡ɢ Ģ [Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910)] š Ţ θ ȡ [Canals] ȢŢ.  â šɡ측 ġ [Percival Lowell (1855-1916)] 150 ȡ Ȣ.  š ¢ ɢ ȸ 츢 ڸ է ǡ , ɡ ڸ ¡ š ¡ Ţ츢ɡ, ġ. 

Mars & Rover

1930-1940 θǢ Ģɢ¡ Ţ Ȣ [Mount Wilson, California] 100 츢 , Ţﻡɢ š 츢, Ǣ𨼸 [Light Spectra] á , 셢 š ɡ!  ɡ Ȣ ġ !  š¢ Ţ , ġĢ ȡ . 

򾢦¡ȡ ȡ š 
츢 Ţ

1. 2001 š ʊ ½

2001 7 š ʊ [2001 Mars Odyssey Voyage] Ţ á즸 Ţ , ǡâ ׾Ģ .  ʊ Ţ 725 ġ á Լ 7x6x9 ɫ Ţ .  ½ , 2001 짼 24 š , ӾĢ [18:36 Ģ ] Ө ţ¢ . š Ǣ ʊ Ţ š Ө¢ [Aerobraking] ¡, ţ 츢 š¢ 240 ġ Ţﻡɢ Ȣ.  186.5 !  , 240 Ģ 2 Ө ! ʊ¢ ɢ Ţ š ţ Ĩ [Mars Radiation Environment (MARIE)] .  Ǣ ɢ [Gamma Ray Spectrometer], á Ǣ ɢ [Neutron Spectrometer], š Ǩ, à š Ƣ Ȣ.  Ǣš  [Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS)] Ţâ .  š Ǣ¢ â ţâ .  ɡ ɢ š , â Ţ [Radiation Hazard] Ţ Ȣ ׸ .  Ţ Ţ [Geology] Ȣ, 츨 [Mineralogical Analysis] . 2005 짼 Ũ ʊ ŢǢ  š Ǣ .

2. ؼ áŢ š Ÿ  

á ŢǢ Ш¸ [European Space Agency (ESA)] 2, 2003 150 Ģ á [Euro] Ţ [133 Ģ US ] ¡â, 240 Ģ ½ , š Ÿ [Mars Express with Beagle-2 Lander]. š  [Mars Express Orbiter] ,  [Beagle 2 Lander] , É¡Ţ Š-â á즸 [Russian Soyuz-Fregat Rocket] É¡Ţ ʧá [Baikpnur Cosmodrome] ׾Ģ . 

Russian Rocket

2003 ʺ 26 š 150 , á  ž θ. Ƣ š¢ , Ǣ , Ţ , ̾ á Ţ . ɢ¢ Ţâ츢 á [Stereoscopic Camera], á Ţ  [Mineralogical Mapper], Ģ¢ Ƹ Ţ [Atmospheric Sounder], Ģ & Ÿ [JPL California] ü Ţ [Radar Probe] Ȣ Ȣ 츨.
Ȣ Ţ. 1831 ¢â Ţﻡ Ċ Ţ [Charles Darwin], Ũ ¢ Ģ -2!  § á Ţ !  š ¢â š , .  , ŢǢ Ǣ š ¢â [Exobiology], Ţ ú [Geochemistry] ׸ .   θ [2003-2007] ̾ š .

š Ǣ : Ţâ .  񧽡츢 [Microscope] ȸ, .  [Robotic Arm] ̸ Ȣ ɢ [Organic Matter], , [Moisture], ռ [Aqueously-deposited Minerals] ¨ á.  Ѩ Ţ , â , š ¢â  Ȣ šԨ . 

3. š š

2003 8 400 Ģ Ţ ¡â š š [Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-B)] ɡ Ө Ծ Ţ Ģ [Cape Canaveral Air Force Station] ¢ -2 á즸 [Boeing Delta-2 Rocket] Ģ ½ .  š Ţ 2004 â-â š .  10 Ӿ š š [Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A)] , š 츢 츢.  Ӿ Ţ 2004 â 4 š . " 800 Ģ š š ½ " Ţ ¡ ' [Administrator, Sean O'Keefe] ը . 

-2 á즸θ â 󾢸 [Soild-Fuel Boosters] .  2004 â-â š Ţ á š [Parachute-Airbag Landing System]  .  š ȡ Ǣ .  š¢ á Ȣ ǡ [Hametite Red Sand] ̾¢ š ! 

"š šǢ Ȣ [Mars Exploration Rovers] ¢â š Ȣž ʨ Ţ.  š¢ Ǿ â ʨ Ţ.  󾨾 Ȣš.  ġ . ɡ â¡ ?  š θ ?  Ш ?  θ ¢â ž šҸ ! ɢ ¢ , â쾢, ɢ ڸ [Organic Compounds] ¨ ġ, ¢â 񧼡.  ¢â 츢 ý ʨ " Ţ Ţﻡ [Edward Weiler, Science Chief] Ȣɡ. 

š¢ Ǣ Ţ,
Ҹ

â¢Ģ áâ 142 Ģ Ȣ ո, š.  ¢ Ţ: 7926 .  š¢ Ţ: 4222 .  š 24 , ⨠Ȣ 687 .  ̨ ¢ Ȩ [10% Mass] , 16 ţ ʨ [16% Volume] , š.  ¢ à [78%], 셢 [20%] š Ǩ ĢȢ, š¢ ¡쨅 [Carbondioxide 96%] ¡, ¢â š ¡ š à 2%, 셢 0.1% Ȣ, ý !  áâ +30 C, Ţ -100 C â ո. 

â 򾢧 â âĸ, š Ǣ Ȣθ.  â 򦾡 [Grand Canyons] š¢ !  Ģ [Olympus Mons], [15 ] š¢ !  â â Ģ 435 !  Ƣ á Ƣ [Caldera Crater] 50 ! 

Steve & Bell

ɢ ȸ, Ȣ 
Шȸ

1971 â-9 Ţ š¢ á !  Ȣ Ȣ á .  ȡ , ¡ , â ڸǢ ǡ š¢ Ȣ!  ڸǢ Ÿ 

á 츢 ȸ ĸǡ Ǣ!  ¡ θ â! 

¢ [14.5 psi] ţ [0.1 psi] š Ǣ Ƣ !  ý Ȣ , 츢 Ţ¡, š ġ Ţ!  ¢ Ģ Ȣ , Ģ Ţ¡ [Moisture], š츨 š ź Ţ!  ¢ š Ȣ Ţ [Water Vapour] . 

š¢ Ȣ ɢ ȸǡ ڸ !  çǢ ¡ ɢ ¡ , â-9 .  ż 625 Ţ ɢ , 185 ɢ !  â-9 è ɢ [Infrared Radiometer], š¢ è [Equator] է Ģ 17 C , Ţ -120 C .  Ǣ ż Ǣ Ǣ ɢ¡ ¡쨅 ɢ [Dry Ice], ո Ţ¡ ̸. 

â측 Ţ Ţ [Space Probe Instruments] çǢ ׸, ɢ ȸǢ ¡ [Frozen Water] .  ż Ǣ¢ Ţ¢ [Water Vapour] ׸ Ţ , ɢ ȸǢ ʸ, ɢ [Dry Ice or Frozen Carbondioxide] 츢. 

š Ȣ  

â è , Ɋ š , ھ¡ ȢŢ!  ĢĢ¡ 1610 ӾӾ š Ǣ Ш ħ츢¢ .  1877 â Ţﻡɢ [Asaph Hall] , 째 š [Phobos], [Deimos] Ǣ ̾øǢ ɡ.  ȡ [Fear] , ȡ [Panic] . 

1969 â â Ţ â, 츢 [Mariner, Viking Space Probes] , ǡ [Irregular, Lumpy Objects] !  â â: 17x14x12.5 !  š¢ ո 5829 Ţ, Ÿ [ 7:51 ] š ڸ!  š ţ¢ Ȣ ո.

Ȣ.  â: 10x7x6 !  š¢ 14,600 Ţ, 31 ո!  Ш ը Ƣ [Craters] .  Ƣ¢ Ţ: 5 !  Ƣ ɢ [Stickney] Ţ ¨ ! 

, ŢǢ¢ ȡ Ȣ Ţ [Astroids] , š ġ Ȣ 񼾡 վ θ!  ¢ Ĩ , , Ӹ š¢ â ¢ [Synchronous Rotation] Ȣ ո! 

2025 ɢ  
š ½

θ [2025] [NASA], [ESA] ɢ ŢǢ [Manned Spacecraft] ¡â, š Ǣ ¡â ո!  ġ ɢ Ĩ 250,000 ½ ¢!  ɡ ¢Ģ š¢ 34 Ģ Ӿ 63 Ģ Ũ θ.  Ţﻡɢ ½ ̨ !  š ɢ ⃢ [Zero Gravity] ½ ¾!  Ţﻡɢ , ɸ !  и ½ ȧ н ŢﻡɢǢ ھ . 

ɡ¡ ɢ ½, ɢ 500 š š ž .  "" [Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)] Ȣ ¡â츢.  Ţ ½ и "Ģ" [Micro-Ecolocigal Life Support Alternative (MELISA)] ȢĢ ؾ . 

2004 š Ǣ š [Mars Rovers] , Ţﻡɢ 츢 ɡ, Ģ Ţ ɢ š¢ . š ɢ и , š и , 21 ȡ ŢǢ ġȢ Ţﻡ Ȣ¢ ¡ Ӿ иǢ Ȣ. 

:
1. Mars-Earth Opposition Makes History By: A.J.S. Rayl [Aug 27, 2003]
2. Planet Guides: Mars By: Duncan Brewer [1993]
3. Exploring the Planets By: Brian Jones [1991]
4. Cornell University Scientists to Lead NASA's 2003 
  Mars Mission By: David Brand
5. 2001 Mars Odyssey Space flight Now [October 24, 2001]
6. Mars Surveyor Orbiter [April 7, 2001]
7. Special Report Odyssey Mission to Mars 
8. Mars Global Surveyor [Nov 7, 1996], Mars Path Finder [Dec 1996].
9. Destination to Mars, Space flight Now By: William Harwood [July 8, 2003]
10. Twin Roving Geologists Bound for Surface of Mars By: William 
  Harwood [May 29, 2003]
11 Science & Technology:ESA's Mars Express with Lander Beagle-2 [Aug26,2003]
12 Future Space Missions to Mars By: European Space Agency [ESA]

jayabar@bmts.com

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