Pathivugal  ISSN 1481-2991
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ȢŢ
Ǣ ¢ Ţ 
šɢ Ţﻡɢ 
¢ (1915-2001) 

. þ
B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear) ɼ

", ⧸ ¢â ! 측 â ͧš ! ɡ ¢ šž , ¢ Ţ Ȣ ţ ! 

- (1934-1996)- 
â ɾ Ţﻡ ! 

Fred Hoyleâʉ Ţﻡ ¢ θ Ǣ Ǣ , ŢǢ , ¢â ŢǢ Ҹ Ȣ Ţﻡ 츨 ¢츢ȡ. 1950-1960 θǢ â , 셢Ǣ , [Nature of Gravity] Ӹ ШȸǢ âŢ [Solar Physics] Ҿ 츨 Ǣ ¢츢ȡ. 1960 θǢ Ņ [Discovery of Quasars], տ [Supermassive Objects], ̺쾢 ŢǢ [High Energy Astrophysics] Ȣ ɨ Ţ ŢﻡɢԼ Ǣ¢ǡ. 

1983 â Ţﻡ ŢĢ ת [William Fowler], ç â Ǣ , âʉ Ţﻡ ¢ תռ Ţﻡ ҽ ¾ â! ú ĸ Ȣ , Ө¢ ¾ ת â Ǣ. Ţ Ө, Ȣ Ǩ Ţ ç â ȡ. 

Fred Hoyle, Gamow, Bethe
θǡ ¢ ŢĢ תռ Ţ, š Ȣ [Nuclear Processes in Stars & Supernovas] Ȣ á, "ÃɢĢ ĸ " [The Synthesis of the Elements from Hydrogen] 츢 1946 Ǣ¢. תâ â Ȣ ý ¢ Ǣ¡ Ţﻡɢ â, ţʊ ¢ ɡ 츽 ǢŢ! 

šŢ Ţﻡɢ ¢Ģ Ţ Ҹ!

Ģ θ ¢ [Colossal Explosion] Ȣ ŢâŨ ո â, Ţ Ǣ Ǣ Ӿ, [George Gamow (1904-1968)]!  , ţ [Background Microwave Radiation] ţ ¢ Ȣ ɡ ! Ӿ " " [Big Bang Theory] â ¢ ǡ, ӨȸǢ ġ Ȣ áâ! 

¢ á Ţﻡɢ Ģռ 츢 "Ȣ ¾" [Conformal Theory of Gravity], "¢-Ģ ¾¡ [Hoyle-Narlikar Theory of Gravitation] ĸ Ţﻡɢ ǡ. " ¾" ȡ, Ţﻡɢ ǡ " " [Steady State Theory of the Universe] ø ! Ţ ¢, ¡â , Ģ ¡ռ " Ţ" [A Different Approach to Cosmology] 2000 Ǣ¢ Ţﻡɢ Ţ Ǣɡ! 

ĸ ¢â Ţ Ȣ Ţɡ Ǣš ¢ š츢 Ţﻡ Ċ Ţ , ¢. ¢ Ţﻡ ҽ á Ţ츢 ȺȢ, "Ǣ Ţ ¾" [Theory of Panspermia] Ţﻡɢ ǡ Ţ, Ȣ ¡ Ţﻡ ĸ Ũ 츽Ţ! 

âʉ Ţﻡɢ ¢Ģ š쨸 ġ!

ġ ¡ Ģ â 1915 24 ¢ š . Ǣ¢ Ӿ á  , ø â Ƹ ۦ ⢠¢ . 1936 B.A. , ¢ ɾ Ţ , â âǢ . 1939 [Nuclear Beta Decay] â ɢ ⢠ġ ȡ! ŢǢ ,  [Accretion & Stellar Evolution] áǢ Ţﻡɢ Ģ [Raymond Lyttleton] ¢ Ǣ [Astrophysics] Ţ.

1945 Ģ ¢ â âá â. 1958 šɢ Ш áâá ¡Ȣ â측 ½ . ĸ â ¢ ü Ȣ Ţ ž Ũ . , ¡ռ šɢĢ š . á , ŢĢ , á š ¡ռ ¡Ȣ [Big Bang Nucleo-synthesis] áǢ â Ǣ иǢ Ǣǡ. 

1958 Ӿ â측Ţ â Ƹ šμ [Martin Schwarzchild] â, " Ţ Ӿ Ũ" [Low Mass Stars to Red-Giant Evolution Model] Ţɡ. 1970 âɢ ġ ʧĢ šɡ ӾӾ Ţ ĸ á ħ츢 , ŢǢ ĸ . 

Arrhenius ,Hoyle, Chandra

ġ Ţ ຢǡ !

¢ ĸ Ţﻡɢ θǡ Ҿá ¢ ɡ! ŢǢ ? 1938 â Ţﻡɢ [Hans Bethe (B.1906)] ɧ , ŢǢ Ã Ģ š Ȣ Ũ ȢŢ. ¢ ¢ , Ţ , " Ţ Ã [Nuclear Fusion Reactions] Ģ â¡ [Helium ->Carbon], ĸǡ, ɡ Ũ ġ ڸ" Ҿ Ţ . "ھ¡ Ţ Ţ ĸ, ġ ¡ Ǣ¢ Ȣ ţ θ" Ȣɡ. 

šŢ [Supernova] Ţ , ¡ ԧɢ, â ġ ̸ ¢ ! ġ ¢ Ǣ ĸ [Elements] ŢǢĢ Ţŧ ȢŢ! 

? ?

1945-1946 θǢ Ţ Ȣ ¢ Ȣ ǡ Ҹ ȡ. â , šɢ Ţ Ҹ . Ģ θ ¢ [Colossal Explosion] Ȣ, Ģ ŢâŨ ո ȺȢ . 1920 â Ţﻡɢ Ţ [Edwin Hubble (1889-1953)] šɡ츢 Ģ! Ţﻡɢ Ţ â! ɡ ¢ ǡ [Thomas Gold], [Hermann Bondi] ¡ռ 츽! 

"ﺧ ̾ Ȣ ȡ, ɡ " ȡ ¢! ӾĨ ھ¡ Ũ [A Beginning & An End] ġ Ţ Ţ! 򨾧 ¢ ȺȢɡ! Ţ Χ Ţ! ҸǢ, ҸǢ 񼡸 Ţâ ո ڸȡ, ¢! 째 š " " [Steady State Universe] ȧ ¢ Ţ츢 ! 

"ɡ ¢ [Steady State] ڸ! Ǣ¢ 셢 [Galaxies] , Ҿ , [Matter] 񼡸, ھ ! ¾ " " ¢ Ģ Ȣ 츽, ¡ ĸġŢ Ө¢ " ¾" [Big Bang Theory] Ţ! 

¾, ¾ , šŢ Ţﻡɢ šɡ츢 Ǣ Ҿ, θ Ţ Ǣ! ¡ ¾ š ¡ ڸ ! 1964 " ţ " [Discovery of Background Microwave Radiation] ¾ ž ! áĢ¡ [Echo] Ţﻡɢ ¾ , ¢ 츽,  ¾ Ũ ! 

ŢǢ¢Ģ ţ ¢Ţ, !

¾ â ŢﻡɢǢ 쨸 â â á , Ȣ Ţ ¢ ʷ Ƹ , Ţﻡɢ á Ţ츢 ռ ׸ . [1977] 򧾡 ¡ á¢ á׼ ¢ ! ȡθ [1903] â Ţﻡɢ š ãɢŠ [Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927)] "¢Ţ ŢǢ " [Panspermia] , Ţ ž Ө! ¢Ţ Ţ ! š [Comets] ÿ [Moisture] Ǿ ½ , Ê [Virus] â! 측 θ Ȣ š ¢Ţ ŢǢ¢ Ţ Ţ ġ ¢ ɡ! м 󿢸 ո Ȣ ! 

ŢǢ¢Ģ Ҿ Ê ¢ ţ 츢 ¢ վɡ. ¢ 측 Ǣ Ţ, Ţﻡ â Ǣ¢ , Ţﻡɢ ! ¢ ŢǢ ¢Ţ и Ȣâ н ! 

1983 ¢ Ţﻡ á Ţ츢̼ [Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe] "¢ŢǢ ŢǢ ţ " [Modern Theory of Panspermia] 츢 Ǣ¢. 򦾡 θ Ƣ 2002 â Ģ Ţ, Ǣ¢ ¢â [Extra-terrestial Life] 񼾡 ȢŢ Ǣ¢! Ģ ռ , Ţﻡɢ á Ţ츢 [Chandra Wickramasinghe] á TIFR ŢǢ ¢ ¢ Ţ [Micro-organisms] Ȣ. ¢ Ţ š  ! ɡ Ǣ ! "¡ " 츢 [Panspermia Theory] Ҿ š Ǣ [Astrophysics] ! ĸ ŢǢ ġȢ ¢Ģ ¢ ! 

¢ ؾ , Ҹ

ġ Ţﻡ 츨 Ǣ¡, ɢ¡ п â , Ҩ Ȣ Ĩ , ¢! Ш¢ ҽǡ .. , , ¡ ⢠, ¢! ʧ¡, ĢŢ, Ƣ, Ţﻡ и ž ¢! 1960 Ţﻡ Ҩ [Science Fictions] 츢 , "â " [Black Cloud], " â á즸θ" [Rockets in Ursa Major -Radio Play], " á" [A for Andromeda -Television Series] Ҹ, ¢ 츢ɡ. Ţﻡ , Ţﻡ Ҩɿ, Ǣ Ţﻡ ؾǡ. 

1968 п Ţﻡ Ȣ Ҹ 츢 θǢ Ģ â [United Nations Kalinga Prize] ¢ Ǣ . â ̾ ȡ ¢Ģ Ţﻡ , ţʉ Ţﻡ è [Swedish Academy of Sciences], á â [Crafoord Prize] Ǣ Ţ. ¢ Ҹ: ġ á , á šɢ Ţ . θ ġ Ţﻡ â ĸ Ţﻡ Ǣ á á âʉ Ţﻡɢ, ¢ 2001 20 ɡ. 

Fred Hoyle's Books:
1. Frontiers of Astronomy [1955]
2. Men & Materialism [1956], The Black Cloud [1957], 
3. Star Formation [1963]
4. Galaxies, Nuclei and Quasars [1965]
5. The Relation of Physics & Cosmology [1973]
6. Ten Faces of the Universe [1977]
7. The Stonehenge [1977]
8. From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology [1972], Copernicus [1973], Lifecloud [1978], Disease from Space [1979], Evolution from Space [1981].
9. Home is Where the Wind Blows -Autobiography [1994]
10 A Different Approach to Cosmology By: Hoyle, Burgidge, Narlikar [2000]
11 Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality By: Hoyl, Burbidge & Narlikar [2000] 


1. Professor Sir Fred Hoyle By: Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe [August 23, 2001]
2. Fred Hoyle Interview at the Institute of Astronomy Cambridge By: Brig Klyce [July 1996]
3. The Quest for the Origin of the Elements in the Universe -Experimental & Theoretical Nuclear Astrophysics By William Fowler [December 1983]
4. Professor Sir Fred Hoyle By: Martin Rees, University of Cambridge [2001 American Institute of Physics] 
5. Professor Sir Fred Hoyle By: Bernard Lovell, The Guardian [August 23, 2001]
6. Dr. Fred Hoyle in Goa By: Dr. Nandakumar Kamat [Aug 2001]
7. Scientist of the Month, Science Show -Sir Fred Hoyle [August, 25, 2001] 
8. Panspermia Thinnai Article By: Aravindan Neelakandan [September 7, 2002] http://www.thinnai.com/sc0909023.html

jayabar@bmts.com 

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â :  .,â 2000