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ȢŢ!
ȢŢ

 
 
ŢǢ Ģ  
þ ţá ɡ ġ 

[Kalpana Chawla Ph.D.] 
(1962-2003) 

. þ, B.E.(Hons), P.Eng. ɼ



š Ǣ ¢ռ ը Ԩ ! [¡]

ŢǢ ɡŢ š!

Kalpana Shawla2002 , " ŢǢ ţáɸ" ɡ ġ Ӹ Ţɡ ɼŢ Ǣ, ġá [Laura Woodmansee] Ȣ: "ɡ ŢǢ Ţ á Ȣɡ! šĢ ɢ м ɡ! ŨĸǢ , ¡ ½ ¢ Ȣ Ȣ , ǡǢ ţ ! ¡ ŢǢ ׸Ǣ ! á "Ţﻡ " [Scientific Base] Ţ â Ţž Ȣɡ!" š , Ȣ ͼ Ǣ ţ ˦ ! 

þ ¡ Ȣ¡ , Ǣ Ţ Ȣ¢Ģ , ﺡ Ƹ 20 ¾ ŢШ Ȣ¢ , â측 츢 , 22 ¾ 셊 Ƹ M.Sc. [Aerospace Engineering] , 26 ¾ ġá Ƹ ŢǢ ﺢɢâ Ph.D. [Aerospace Engineering] , Ţ 32 ¾ ŢǢ ţá ɡ ġ ŧȡ ɢ ĸ Ũ š츢ȡá? 

θ â Ǣ Ţɢ¡ , Ө ŢǢ Ģ Ȣ Ȣ, š 츢 ŢǢ 񦸡ǡ ¢  , ɢ ġ , ɢ ? "âǢ Ţ , Ģ ⧸ Ÿ Ũ ﺢ â ϸ! ¡ š ! ɢ ! Ө!" ¡ ŢĢ š Ȣ ɡ ŢĢ Ţ ŢƢ츧 Ţ! 

þ þ â š¢ â ҉ ɡ: " Ǣ ټ иȡ. ŢǢ Ģ ¡Ȣ ɾ šĢ , ̸. ýǢ þ ɡ, ¡Ţ â Ţ, ¨ 츢 ¢츢!"

½ ǡ ŢǢ ! 

Columbian Crew¡ ȡ š츢 š! ׸ [Missile] , Ǣ [Spacecraft] ţ¢ [Orbit] Ȣ , 쨸 Ө Ţ [Aircraft], æ , ġ Ȣ ! 1986 Ţ Ţ 16 θǡ, ŢǢ ½ Ȣ 츢! 측 Ţ 򾡸 , ½ ̨ Ţâ ξ Ţ, 𺢧! 측𺢸Ǭ¢ 측 ׾ ո, ո Ǿ ȡ! ɡ 2003 â Ӿ ǡâ ξ 츢 ¡ Ţ 16 , Ģɢ¡ 셊 šɢ Ũ Ȣ Ũ á 측 ĸ , žɨ Ţ Ţâ? ŢĢ ŢǢ ţ ¡ ç , , , Ţ, Ǹ ¡ Ө Ȩ š򨾸Ǣ ? 

¡ â 2001 11 Ũ, ǢǢ 𺢨 á, ¢ , Ч ý Ũ ¡ ! þ â ŢǢ Ţɢ¡, ɡ ġ ŢĢ Ũ š, ¡Ţ Ǣ š ʧ ġ ! 

¡ ½ ٿ â [Rick Husband 45], ½ Ţɢ, ŢĢ [William McCool 41], ½ ҿ 째 [Michael Anderson 43], ½ ҿ, Ţ ê [David Brown 46], ½ ҿ ġ á [Ilan Ramon 47], ½ ҿ, ġ ǡ [Dr. Laurel Clark 41], ½ ҿ, ɡ ġ [Kalpana Chawla 41] [ , ] Ţ ! â ġ á ĢĢ Ӿ ŢǢ Ţɢ! â! ¡Ţ Ӿ â ŢǢ Ţɢ¡ ɡ ġ Ө¡ ŢĢ ½ !

ŢǢ šɢ ! 

1986 â 28 ŢǢ "" [Space Shuttle, Challenger] ǡâ ɡ Ө [Cape Canaveral, Florida] ׾Ģ 򾡸 , 50,000 [ 10 ] , ˦ š ! Ţ ȡ м, ½ Ǣ Ţɢ [ , ] ¢â! θ ڧ ŢǢ , ¡ [Space Shuttle Columbia] ׾ 츢 , á Ţ ǡ! , ¡ ŢĢ , , . ¢ ! Ȣ, Ȣ , Ţ ! 

ŢǢ Ǣ , ¡ ǡ ̨ Ţ! ŢǢ Ţ, Ţ ½Ǣ Ţ, Ţ ý Ȣ ̾ . Ũ Ǣ 111 ŢǢ ½ 21 θ ! ¡ Ţ ӾĢ ¡á. 1981 Ӿ 21 θ á ¡Ȣ ŢǢ , ¡! 27 ŢǢ¢ , Ţ׸ ŧ , Ȣ ¢ . Ө Ţ , Ǣ¢ , 16 ŢǢ , о Ţ и Ţ ǡ, ھ 16 Ǣ ! 

8-15 [EST], , ½ â [Commander Rick Husband] Ţ "ţ Ȣ" [Deorbit] , á즸 ﺢ 츢ɡ! ¡ ǡâ . 

Ţ ţ Ȣ: : 170 , Ÿ: 15900 mph, ǡâ ξ: 12520 . ½ : .

[Re-entry]: Ţ 180 ʸâ , Ө , ¢ á , "" [Re-entry] Ţ . Ţ 25 [Blackout] Ģ ! : 48 ; Ÿ: 16125 mph. ǡâ ξ : 3275 !

 Ţ: : 42 , : 20 , Ÿ: 14520 mph. ǡâ ξ : 1720 .

39 ¡ ½ о ɸ ! ¡ Ţ 8-59 [EST], ǡâ ξ ž 16 셊 Ȣ! 
 

Ţ ý ? 

¡ ŢĢ 2.5 Ģ Ҹ [Components] ! Ȣ "ھ " [Reliability Level] 99.9% , 2500 ҸǢ ǡȡ Ţ Ţǡ šҸ ġ! 2003 â Ӿ ŢĢ ¢ , ӾĢ 쨸¢ " Ţ" [Temperature Sensors] ؾ, ׸ Ȣ½ [Mission Control Centre] 쨸 ȢŢҸ ! ¡ ɡ Ө ׾ 2003 â 16 á즸θ Ȣ , Ţ 򾡸 , â ɢĢ Ţĸ Ţ Ѩ ź [Foam Insulation] 쨸 ! ɡ ½ ¡ Ѩ ź 쨸 , Ţ ý 츧 ¡ ھ¡ ȢŢ! 

¡Ţ 70% 27,000 á ź θ [Ceramic Heat Shield Tiles] ɢ ǡ ! ž Ţ ¢ [During Re-entry] áŢ, Ȣ Ȣ , Ţ и츢! ź θ ¡ Ģ ǡ [Silica Fibres] , á ɡ [Glue] . Ţ ¢ ̾¢ 20,000 ź θ [: 6"x6", : 0.5"-3.5"] ǡ ! ŢĢ ּ ̾¢ 7000 ź θ . ź θ ¡ Ģ ٨ ! ɨ ŢŢ áǢ ! 1260 C ź Ģ Ǣ ¢ ! Ţ 츢, 쨸Ǣ ӨɸǢ ź θ ¡! ġ, ھ âʸǡ [Reinforced Carbon] . 

¡ ź θǡ ! Ţ ½ , , Ǣ θǡ ź θ Ţ ! Ţ 쨸¢ Ƣ ź θ Ţĸ Ţ, ݧȢ¾ Ţ ؾ ġ! ź θ ¡ â , ӾĢ , ŢĢ Ӹ Ȣ Ȣġ Ţ ո! Ǣ , 쨸 츢 ġ! š á [Aerodynamic Flight Control] Ȣ§, , Ģ Ҹ Ȣ ý ¢ġ! 

ھ¢ ﺢ Ţ Ч ɡ ! Ǣ, Ǣ Ȣ, Ģ ¡ Ţ ý Ȣ, š ġ! 

ŢǢ Ģ ½ Ţɢ

India Mourns¡ Ţ ٿ â â Ţ [Air Force Colonel]. Ө ŢĢ ½ . 1999 Ţ񽢨 [International Space Station] Ш Ţɢ¡ ¡Ȣ Ӿ Ӿ ţ¢ Ţؼ [Docking with Orbiting Outpost] ! Ǣ Ţ θ Ӿ Ӿġ 16 Ţﻡ ɸ Ȣ ! Ţ, Ǹ . ŢĢ ¡Ţ Ţɢ. â ٿ, ¢ Ţɢ [U.S. Navy Aviator]. . Ţ Ǹ .

ŢɢǢ á, ġ ǡ â ٿ, 츼 [U.S. Navy Undersea Medical Officer], Ţ ڨ ҽ [Flight Surgeon]. Ţ ڨ ҽ , Ţ Ţ Ÿ. ġ ¡ ½ Ӿ ! š ھ ½! Ҿ ! 

¡ پ š [Payload Commander], 째 â Ţ ķʦ . ŢǢ Ţﻡ ɸ ġ Ţ θ .

ŢǢ ҿ Ţ ê â Ţ ڨ . ¡ Ӿ ½. 

ġ á ĢĢ ¡Ţ Ӿ ŢǢ Ţɢ. Ţ . Ţ, Ҿ, ҾŢ . 

þ â ŢǢ ţá

¾ ɡ ġ ﺢɢ [Flight Engineer]. þ , â ɡ ŢǢ Ţɢ¡, Ǣ Ģ ¢ ¡ ! Ӿ ŢǢ Ţɢ á [Rakesh Sharma] É ŢƢ ½ , Ӿ ŢǢ Ţɢ , ɡ! ŢǢ Ţɢ ɢ, â ŢĢ Ө Ǣ Ȣ Ӿ ŢǢ Ҹƨ! 

"Ӿ Ӿ ½ Ţ ... [J.R.D. Tata] . ¨ ŧ ý " ɡ ġ Ө Ȣǡ. ɡ ŢǢ ţá! Ģ ż째 75 [Karnal] â 1962 ɡ . Ǣ¢ [Tagore Bal Niketan School] ɡ Ţ ¢ȡ. ɡ ¾ 츢 ¢ ¡ ! 츢Ǣ Ţ Ţ ¢ ܼ է ! Ţ Ũ Ũ 쨸 𨸧 ɡ ŢШ Ȣ¢ ¢ Ţ𼾡, Ȣ ¢츢ȡ! Ǣ¢ , ɡ ŢǢ ﺢɢá [Aerospace Engineer] ھ¢ ! 

1982 ﺡ Ƹ ŢŢ ﺢɢâ ¢ ¢ á, B.Sc. [Aeronautical Engineering] ȡ. â측Ţ 셊 Ƹ [University of Texas] , 1984 M.Sc. [Aerospace Engineering] ȡ. â ¢ [U.S. Citizen] ̾ ɡ . 1988 ġá Ƹ [University of Colorado] , 26 ¾ ŧ Ph.D. [Aerospace Engineering] ! ɡ â츨 ! â [Jean-Pierre Harrison] Ţ ¢¡ [Flying Instructor].

ӾĢ Ģɢ¡Ţ Ţ [Ames Research Center, Moffit Field] " Ţâ Ţ" [Air Flows around High Performance Aircraft] ɸ . 1994 ʺâ Ţ ŢǢ Ȣ [Space Shuttle Mission] ¢ . ¢ ɡ ŢǢ ½Ǣ á [Mission Specialist] â . 1997 Ӿ ¡ ŢǢ Ȣ STS-87 [Space Mission STS-87]. STS-87 Ȣ Ө , 츢 ½ [Microgravity Payload Flight]. ¢ ɡ "  " ̿á [Robotic Arm Operator] Ũ , 376 [ 15 ] Ǣ ǡ. Ӿ ½, Ţﻡ Ш째 [Science Satellite] Ȣ , ɡ Ƣ . ո Ţɢ Ǣ [Space Walk], Ţĸ Ш Ȣ! 

1997 Ӿ ¡ ½ , ɡ 򾾡, Ũ Ǣ â Ȣɡ! â측 ž, âž â Ģ ¢츢ȡ! 

2003 â 16 ھ ½ ɡ Ө ׾ ¡á ¡ ŢǢ Ģ ! Ţ ǡ ¡Ţ 28 Ȣ STS-107 [Space Mission STS-107]! Ţ ٿ â [Commander Rick Husband] Ţ Ȣ ҿá [Mission Specialist] â! 

¡ ½ ɡ â  

1. ŢĢ "پ " [Payload Bay] Ţ Ǣ ɸ â . 

2. ŢǢ¢ Ţ  [Astroculture (Bacteria)] 

3. ҧá ʸ [Advanced Protein Crystal Facility]

4. š ҧá  [Commercial Protein Growth]

5. ¢ Ȣ¢ Ө [Biotechnology Demonstration System]

6. ¢򦾡 ɸ [Biopack ESA, Eight Experiments]

7. Ҩ [Combustion Module with Laminar Soot Processes]

8. Ţ á [Water Mist Fire Suppression]

9. ¢ 째 ɸ [Structures of Flame Balls Experiments at Low Lewis-number]

10. ɢ Ǣ Ţ [Mechanics of Granular Materials] 

11. ŢǢ¢ šŢ ú Ө ɸ [Vapour Compression Distillation Flight Experiments]

12. ¡ ʸ  [Zeolite Crystal Growth Furnace]

ŢǢ Ǣ ɸ, ½ 

1960-1972 θǢ Ȣ ½ ġ ¡ , ŢǢ [Space Shuttle] 1977 š 1981 Ģ ! 

ŢǢ Ģ ʨ ڸ, [Cost Overruns], ¡â , [Fraud], š ǡڸ, ڸ , Ӿ ¢ ½ θ Ţ! š ŢǢ ½ [׾, 񸡽, ̾] 250 Ģ š Ȣθ! ŢǢ , 60 Ǣ Ҹ ӾĢ ! ɡ áâ¡ , 5 6 ½! ﺢ ŢĢ ɢ ½ , š ̨ 2 3 Ţġ! 

1986 Ţ ý , â Å , â Ȣ â ! Ţ ½ ¡ ̸, Ǣ  , Ţ ¨ м, Ģ Ţ ¢, 측 Ţ [Federal Code Violations] Ţ Ţ ! 

16 θ [1986-2002] ŢǢ Ȣ , Ө ȧȢ Ǩ ! Ҿ Ш째 ׾, Ш , ŢǢ , ħ츢 Ţ, Ө , , Ţ¡, Ǣ, â Ţ ¡ ŢǢ ġȢ Ȣ ǡ! Ǣ¢ š, Ţɢǡ Ȣ Ţ񽢨м , ɢ Ţ Ţ ½ ! Ţ ȢǢ Ǣ Ũ 12,000 â Ǣ Ũĸ и, ﺢ Ţ ¢ ! 

¡ 1986 ŢǢ Ţ Ţ ɧ, ¢, 25 Ģ Ĩ Ţ ¢츢! 100 Ȣ ½ ʨ ¡, 28 ½ 측, , ĸ Ţﻡɢ, ﺢɢ Ţ θ! 2003 ¡ Ţ Ţ ¢âм, 100 ŢǢ Ţ׸ Ч, 25 Ģ ¡â ! ġ Ҹ Ţ, ɾ ɢ ¢ , Ģ ¢ ܼ ¡ ¡! 

jayabar@bmts.com
 

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