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Tower PisaĢ¢ (Pisa) Ţ 측 Ǣ Чо ȡ, "š, š" ã š Ө . ɡ ոȨ Ţž. âŢ; ɡ, â Ţ츢 ; Ţ о 츢¦ Ţ ŧ 즸. [ ռ ɡ, Ţơ 즸, ǡ ġ Ţ Ģ ġ]

򦾡 1173 է Ģ¢ ġ򾢨 â 򦾡Ţ. ɡ, 򾢧¢ â ¡, θ Ţ š š â . θ. ̨ θ -¢ Ǣ - . Ӿ - 1173 1178 򾢧 츢. Ӿġ Ȣ ̨ ׸ 츢ȧ, , 1173 Ž  ¾ š¢Ģ 츦ġ . ͨ¡ ɦȡ, â , Ӿġ Ţ¢ ȡ ȡŨ ż 츢 â츢. 1198 Ȣ , Ӿġ ȡ ¢ 츢 Ũ 󾾡 . , ŢƢ즸 󾧸 ¢ ¡ ɢ ¢ 츨о էš Ч, 1230 Ģ 1278 Ũ ʸ ɡ. Ө ¡ θȾ 즸, 򾢧 ɡ. ɡ, ɡš׼ɡ ( ; ; Ƣ Ӿġ ) â 1284 ɾ, ( ġ ħ ɧš) ɡ ȡ -1360 Ũ- է 򾢧 Ш츧š 츧š ɾ â ɾ âŢ.

¢ Ӹ ռ Ƣ 1370 ,ħ츢¢ ħ츢¡ Ȣ , ĢĢ¡ 墨 ȡ Ƨ, Ⱦ âá ¡ â¡ Ţ£ . ź׸Ǣ š ĢĢ¡Ţ ¡, 츨¢ Ǣ â ŢŢо.1989 192 째 294 ʸ Ȣ [ڨ 򾢧 ɨ ], ¢ Ũ â ¢ Ǣ 쨸 . ɡ, ' Ţا Ħȡ, ɢ 󦾡տ Ţا' 0.04 0.08 Ũ 즸 . .측 ɢ θ ¢ħ 񧼡 ¡ ʨŢ, Ȣ¢ġ ̨ ( ŢǢ ̨ â¡ â즸) Ģ â ¢츢. ɡ, 󾧸 񽢧 񨼨 Ч , . ¡  ȡ á, ¿¢ Ţ򨾨 -Ţ򧾡 [soil mechanics-geotechnics]  ȢŢ 츢. š .Ţ ɢá . ɢâ [San Ranieri] ŢơŢ, ܼ ¡ Ţ. Ծ, ç ¡ -ɡ, 𦾡, Ţ- Ƣ¢ ɢ ŢŢ츢.

pisa Ȣ . âž ɧ±ġ â 򾢨 ġ š ġ¡. ¢ Ģ ȡĢ (, 14,500 â ) ¢츢. ɡ, 񧽡, ɦ 쨸¡ . 򾢧 š  ǡ ̽ (cohesion-coeeficient), 򾨸 (shear stress), á̽ (friction coefficient), (settlement) Ȣ Ȣ âɸ Ţââ.
[âɸ 측ʼǢ ܼ â   ȡ, Ĩ ʼɢ٧ Ţ ýš. Ǣ ξĢ и̽Ǣ (safety factors) â׸ ýġ.] , š ġ ¢ 򦾡, ĸ Ģ즸 â š¢. 측ý /Ũ ʾġ [differential settling]. , ɡ ¢ɡ  [compaction] ɡ, ܼ ̨ § âȾš? () 1.86 Ģ ¢ Ũ¢ 3.75 ¢츢.

򾢧, 򾡸 , 1350 м 2.5 â; 1817 5.1 â . 1990 5.5 . 5.4 â ŢŢ Ȣɡ; ɡ, Ţ ¡Ǣ 5.5 ¢ , ȢŢĢ Ш¡ θ ɡ 󾾢Ţ á Ш á츢 5 Χ â . 측 츢 ɾ Цڭ . Ǣ š ʼ Ǣ즸; 째 â Ǣ Ȣ즸. Ƣ á , ¢  -Ƣ (low-tech) [ɡ, ξ(effective solution)] .

Ӿ򾢧, 1993 Ģ ȡ (870 â ) â즸á ż򾢧 . ɡ, 츢 â , ʼ ¢Ģ . , ( ýŨĸý ŢŢΦ 򾢧) ʼ Ȣ , Ģ 򾢧 ǡ ; ܼ, ľ측 վ Ģ 𨼸 Ӿġʼ Ȣ. ȡ 츢 򾢧, Ȣ¢ġ ɧ š , ̨š â ż, ɨ š Ȩ 򦾡 ơ ɡ; , ¢ Ţ򾢧, š ơ¢ Ţ¢ (augur) Ţ, Ȣ š 𨼸 (cavity) ȡ. [ â¡¢ (screw)âġ Ĩ¢ġ Ũ Ц; ɢӨ¢ ơ , â¡ Ţ Ǣ¢Ģǡɡ, ơ¢ 󨾧¡ Ĩиǧ¡ š? , âŢ ŢǡŢ ] , 째 â š Ǣ¢ 즸񼾡, ̾ ¢, ̾¡ ħ 츢.[ʾ ¡ ȢӨ¡ɡ, 򾢧 ʾĢ Ÿ , - 򾢧 ġŢ,- Ũ ʾ¢ 츢 (̧ʨ (asymptotic-line)츢) ¡ ž ] ɡ,¸Ȣ Ƣ ʾĢ Ǩŧ츢 򾡸 . Ţ, 째 żʧ 15.6 츢.

ţ򦾡Ƣ Ȣ ȡɧ, ɡ â¡ɡ â Ţ, ʼ â Ȣ 츢. Ţ , ͸ʧ Ȣ 쨸¢, â ʼ â á 즸ġ. ¡, Ũ á š, 측 Ţ¢:- â츢? , ľ?? ;-))
 
 

Ψ Time June 25, 2001 Ǣ¡ Ψ¢ Ţ .

ľ š

The Leaning Tower of Pisa - official web site:
http://torre.duomo.pisa.it/

The Unofficial Leaning Tower of Pisa Web Site:
http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/ltpisa/ltpisa.html

NOVA Online | Fall of the Leaning Tower:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pisa/
 

 

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â :  .,â 2000