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logo.gif (31909 bytes)pathivukal.gif (1975 bytes)             Pathivugal  ISSN 1481-2991

â:..â                                    Editor: V.N.Giritharan
Ƣ 2005 72 - !
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ȢŢ!
⧸ (GPS)!

- Ө Չ -
 

GPSGPS,  Global Positioning System . Ȣ 24 Ш째 , ¢ GPS, ĸǡŢ  Խ . Ш째, ¢ ʧ¡ и.  Ģ â Ĩ Ȣ (è-latitude, 츧è-longtitude -altitude) ʸ.

GPS, ǡ Ш째 Ǣǡ , ĸ Ģ 츢. GPS , ڸǢ š . ɡ, ý á ϸ 츢. 

GPS , ̸, š, ɢǢ . GPS, â и (Department of Defense) .  ǡ GPS, Ħ . , GPS Ũ Ţ Ţġ:

1. 21 GPS  Ш째 â Ш째 10,600 Ĩ ¢ 츢.  , Ÿ Ш째 , Ш째 򾢧ħ (geosynchronous);  ¢ Ģ 4 Ш째ǡ ʧ¡  â , Ш째 . 
  
2. š Ш째Ǣ ɢ, Ţ ʸ ʧ¡ . ۨ Ȣ â Ш째, Ȣ즸 ĢҸ. (즸Ө š Ш째 Ȣ Ȣ 򧾡 Ȣ .

3. ¢ GPS ¢ ɢ,  Ө¢ , 4 Ш째Ǣ ϸ, Ĩ 츢. ׸, Ţ¢ Ĩ- 츧è è¡ θ.

4. ¢, Ţý , .

5. Ш째ǢĢ , è, 츧è¡,    .
 

6. , ½ Ÿ ¡ . Ģ .
 
 (Trilateration)!

GPS
 Ө: ȢǢ ĸ 째 Ÿ Ȣ Ө. 째 Ө¢ (Triangulation), ȢǢ Ĩ Ȣ  ׸  θ.  Ө¢ 1. Ǣ츢  (â), 2.  Ȣ, Ǣ () θ. â Ǣ¢ Ĩ Ȣ, ̨ Ǣ θ. 

Ǣ Ÿ .  Ȣ Ǣ¢ Ǣ¢Ģ Ȣ, Ǣ 򦾡Ĩ ġ. , Ǣ¢Ģ Ţ Ȣ Ǣ 츢Ȧȡ, Ǣ ȡ ġ Ţ ǢǢ ž, Ȣ Ǣ ǢǢ ȡ ġ. ȡ Ǣ¢Ģ Ȣ Ǣ ȡ ո. Ǣ¢ ; Ǣ Ǣ , Ȣ Ǣ¢ .
ġ ȢҦ ¢ ; â Ǣ¢ . â Ǣ¢ 4 Ǣ θ. ȢǢ, ġ ը¢ 츢. θ Ţ Ч!
 

GPS θ!

ĸ Ȣ ġ, , Ţ Ƣ (Navigate), â (track) GPS ׸. 
  
Ǣ, â¡ Ȣ Ţ, Ģ Ţﻡ θ.  , GPS Ũ Ǣ Ȣ. GPS â , Ȣ󾨾 ŧġ, ɢ Ê š 츢 ,  ħ Ũ ʸ. 

̨, Ȣ Ƣ󦾡Ƣ ŢǢ 񸡽, 򦾡 ý ¡ , GPS θ. ɡ (elk) Ţ GPS Ţ ġ .

šá¢ GPS , áž , Ȣ ʸ. ȢҸ , ý , Ȣ   ʸ. 

Ģ š ʧ ̨ , âɢ ʼ ӨɸǢĢ ; , âɢ¡ŢĢ , , áĢ . GPS ¡, â . ɡ, â¡ ̨ Χ . ġŢ,  ̨ ġ ¢ġ!

¢ ¢ GPS Ҹ Ÿ츢. Ţ ¨, Ţ , Ţš , źÿ վŢ¡ GPS . 

GPS
GPS USE
Ȣ Ҹ , GPS ⧨:

1. Ȣ Ш째Ǣ ȢĢ .

2. Ш째 ׸. Ȣ GPS , Ш째ǢĢ , ̨- ʧ¡ . ʧ¡ ĸ ֨. Ǣ¢ Ÿ, Ţɡ 300,000 .  (Ȣ Ÿ). Ш째ǢĢ 󾧺 츢 ,  ¡ Ĩ 츢 .
!
Ĩ

GPS
GPS , ʧ¡ Ш째ǢĢ , Ш째 Ĩ 츢. Ȣ (ǢŢ š), Ш째 Ө (Random Code) Ȣ£ и. Ȣ£, , θ. Ш째 󾨼׼, Ш째 ý, θ ý .  (ͽ) ½ . Ǣ¢ Ÿ򧾡 츢ɡ ½ ? Ȣġ. 째 ½ ȡ, Ч Ш째 .!

â GPS ¢, Ш째Ǣ ʸ ɡ Ţɡ (1/1000,000,000 Ţɡ) .  Ш째 ¡   , ʸ Ģ ġ ¡ Ţ ʸ Ш째Ǣ ġ, GPS ¢ θ. ɡ, Ţ ʸǢ Ţ $50,000 ¢Ģ $100,000 , ȡ Ѹš Ţ Ţ¡ Ţ GPS Ⱦ 측.  . š Ш째Ǣ Ţ , Ģ Ţ ʸ . GPS ¢ġ, 򾢦,  ý š ʸ ʸ . Ģ, , Ш째ǢĢ , ۨ Ģ θ ; â .

â Ш째, ׸ ,  Ũġ. Ǣ¢ . ׸ â¡ 측Ţ, Ǣ¢ š ġ!. ɡ, ҸǢ , Ǣ¢ . ׸ , ɸ ʸ и. ġ ׸ Ţ ¢ ¡ .

¡, Ǣ¢ ž . ¢ Ш째Ǣ Ţ ʸ򧾡 , GPS , ʸ â . , , Ȣ Ȣ â , Ģ Ţ ʸ򧾡 Ţ̸. 

Ȣ Ǿ , , Ш째 츢? â¡ Ȣ . Ш째 Ȣ ǧ袠 ½ 측. GPS , ġ Ш 츢? Ũ 츸 . Ш째Ǣ ǧè¢ ĺ . ɡ, и Ш째Ǣ ¢ Ȣ 񸡽, § ġ GPS Ш째鼡 츢. 

GPS ȡ Ũ , Ģ ĸ . Ǣ Ǣ ʧ¡ , á Ÿ (Ǣ¢ Ÿ) Ǣ ¡ ̸. ɡ, ¢ Ǣ, Ȩ š̸. Ȣ ɢ, Ǣ, , ĸ ʸ. ɧ, -ͽ ¢ 󾡸 , ҸǢ ý¡ . šɡ â ʼǢ ʧ¡ ǡ 񼡸. ɡ, Ш째 Ĩ â.
  
Ũ£ (Differential) GPS Ƹ ׸. GPS Ģ,  Ħ, Ȣ . Ũ£ GPS ,  â󾾡, ¢ Ģ 츢.  , DGPS ý ġ , Ȣ Ũ ĢҸ. š, Ȣ Ũ ž Ũ£ GPS, ý GPS Ģм Ĩ и.

Ž

1. Marshall Brain and Tom Harris, How GPS Receivers Work. www.howstuffworks.com.
2. N.J. Muller, Wireless A to Z, McGraw Hill, New York, ISBN 0-07-141088-0.
3. GPS Uses in Everyday Life, www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/EvryDyUse.html.
4. GARMIN, About GPS, http://www.garmin.com/aboutGPS.

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