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¢ (1899--1986) Ţ ý측 ŧ츢 ţ 츢 ո. ܼ ؾ ţ-- ţ Ҩɸ Ȣ¨ , â Ģ վθȡ. ¢ Ţ. ̾ ڸ . ¨ ӾĢ Ţ   â š .  --â 츢Ǣ Ţ ҨɸǢ. šĢ  þ Ţ, , š ޺¢ ¢ . 즸 Ţè Ƣ ½ š¢ġ â 츢 ¨ . ؾ   ɢ Ƣ¢ , 쨻 츢 Ũ ɢġ Ũ¢ , â측Ţ â , ڸ  , Ƣ ã¡  츢 Ģ Ƣ 츢ɡ. 

Ţ 츨 á ţ â측Ţ ġ 츢 ̸ š ž ɦ . ɢɦ ɢ ġ 츢 측 ŢǢ š¡ ú θ . Ţ -- ڸǡ, Ψøǡ, Ţǡ-- šڧ ¡ š š . š, ¾ Ũ , š ȡ, š, ú â Ũ¢ ¢. 

"I believe that some day we will deserve not to have governments" Dr. Brodies' Report (1970) ̾ ؾ ۨ¢ ؾ¢츢ȡ. š ¾Ũ ¡ɨ վɡ. Ţ Ũ ( Ҩ) 츧 ¾ Ũ 측 ŢȢɡ . ȡ Ţ Ũ Ǣ 츢 ã¡, Ǿ ɸǡ Ţ. ġ Ţ Ũ 츢þ ¾ Ũ þǢ ¢ ĸ Ţи. Ө ˦ ȡ šŢŢ. ȡ ¢Ģ . 򦾡 ȡ (-Gothic-) Ţ Ǣ , ¡, ¾ ¢. 򦾡 ȡ ھ¢ ɡŢĢ  . ý ɡŢĢ ħ š (the Other) š Ţ¡츢¡ . Ƣ¢ š¢ġ ؾ 츢 þ Ǣ ĸ򾢨 ȡ Ҩɸ ɡ¢ ź Ţ. â Ţš Ģ ž Ģ ¢Ģ, Ǣ ¢Ģ Ţ ȡ (Absolute Other) ţ Ҩɸ ȡ. ġȢ ġ Өȸ ¡ ¡ ɡ Ǣ 쾢 š̸. áɢ â Ǣš â . ¢Ǣ ¡Ǣ, áɢ ʼ ¢ š¡ ¢, ɢ ȨŸ, Ө ̾ ġ Ҩ, Ţɡ ¨ ɢ, ý ž  
¢ . 

¾ Ũ Χ ǡ . (Straightforward Narratives) ؾ 츢ȡ. 򾢸 Ţ츢 Ţ. â Dr. Brodie's Report ؾ¢츢ȡ. ġ š 򦾡 .츣,áŢ , ؾ ž, 측θǡ Ȣġ. ¾ Ũ 츢 þ¢ ը ĸŨ ž Ө¢ Ȣ . â ġâ, . . ġâ ¡ ġ츢ȡ â. ɡŢ ġâ 츢¢츢ȡ. ġâ ž Ţ ȡ . Ȣ 츢 ž Ȣǡ. 1940Ǣ á ¡ Ê ռ ¡ Ȣ Bustos Domecq Ҩâ ؾ¢츢ȡ. þ Ǣ£측 Ȣ Ǣ ̾ ǡ.(The Seventh Circle). 

ɢ Ũ¢ Ҹ . âĢ, š, á Å Ƣ Ǣ š . Ɋ ɢ áž 측 š츢 . ɢ ġȢ ɡǢ ŢĢ š츢 ȡ. 򦾡 ȡ š ɡŢ ; и Ţ ɡ ( Ƣ š á ) Ţ 츢. 򦾡 ȡ á (Rosas) ȡ á (Peron), ɡ 
Ǣ Ţ ¢ . 1946--55 ռǢ, 1974 Ȣ á ɡŢ šâ¡ . šɡ ¡ Ǣ 츢. ɡ ĸ Ţ ¡ 1940Ǣ Ţ ڸ ؾ. š ¢ ¾ š . áɢ Ţâš Ţš 측 ¡ , á ¡á ɢ â ĸ á -- šâ Ţ . ̦ ĸ Ũ¢Ģ . Ƣ ġá "Ţ " . š Өȸ, ʨ šž. ȡ ̸. 츢Ȧȡ . š š Ţ Ģҽ â 츢ɡ ç . áɢ Ţ Ţè ؾɡ. 

15 ¾ 1914 ռ á ½ . 1921 ξ Ɋ ɡ. ¢ɢ Ţġ š , , , Ƣ . ţ 츢 ȢӸ¢. â â Rafael Cansinos--Assens --ɢ Ţ áɡ . 1919 ᢠš츢 ÷ ɡ . ĸ ۨ 츢--ú 츨 Ψ¡ ؾ 
The Sharper's Cards ̾¡ Ǣ¢. ĸ Ǣ¢ Ţ The Red Psalms. É 𺢨 Ţ̸ Ҹ ؾ Ţ Ţ Ǽ츢. Ɋ ɢ ᢠ츢 Ǣ . ɡ ɢ ᢠ--â ħ ţ 츢 Ǣ򾾡-- Ţ. Ţ¢ 츢 ž ¾ иȡ. 

Ӿ ӾĢ 츢 â Prisma [Prism]. Ǣ  â â ɡŢ Ǣ ɡ. ¢ . 1924 ç ¡ â ŢԼ Proa â . Ȩ ռ Ǣ 
ŢԼ ͸ Ƣ ɡ. 15 ǡ ¢. 1933 Ģ âʸ ⢠ؾ . ը Ӿ ڸ ռ 1942. Ӿ ڸ ̾¢ The Garden of Branching Paths. ȡ El Hogar, š ơ Ǣ 츢 ȢӸ ̾¢ . 

ب¡ Ũ 1937 ɢ ĸ ̦ ¢ Ш ĸ â¡. ĸ ̿ â . ɧ ĸ ŨĨ 50 󾾡 иȡ. ¡ Ũ¡ ȢԼ ȡ.

1938 Ȣ Ţ ý ¢ . ʺ¡ š 󧾸 ɡ . ž § ġ Ţ Ũ . ۨ Ȣš â¡ ̸Ⱦ  
Ţɡ. Ţ Ţ ɧ ؾ¢󾾡 Ҿ¾ ؾ ɢ. Ȣ ؾ Ĩ â¡ 츢 ɢ ž . Ţ׾ Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote. ɡ ¡ An Approach to Al-Mutasim Ψ¢ 츨¢ š . ɾ Χġ, ,, Š. ¢ ɡ ĸ ɢ š ĸ򾢨 ģ ž . 

þ Inter-textuality Ģθ ɡ츢 Ţ. þǢ ĸ򾢨 â (The Library of Babel) . ¾Ģ ¢ ĸ . ĸ򨾧 â¡š â š . ɡ ĸ򾢨 󧾡 âŢ. ¾ ĸ Ǣ츢. Ƣ ɢǡ Ȣ£θǡ վɡ. š Ƣ Ţ ĸ򾢨 Ƣ ø Ţ Ƣ측 â ġ ƢǢ š. Ţ ɢ Ƣ ɢ Ƣ¢ ؾ ھ . 

Ţ š쨸 Ģ . š Ǣ ú, 측, Ȣ ҽ, š, ¡, Ţ, ģ , â¡, ½측, Ƣ Ţ, á ţ, ¢š, ĸ, , ý Ǣ Ũ . ɡ ɢ¡ ɡŢ ¡. þ θ ̽ ȡ. Ȣ âž ؾŢ. ɧ Ţ ¡ ŢŨ . â ب¡ 
ȢšĢ š. ɨ . ɢ âǢ ܼ šɢ ž á . 

1935 ﺢ ¡ ڸ ̾ Ǣ¢. A Universal History of Infamy о . ɢ, ¡Ţ, 츼Ǣ Ƣ Ţ 츢ȡ. Ȣ š Ө . 츢 츢 ܼ --Ȣ Ҿ ܼ. 1933 1934 ¢ Critica Ƣ Ũ׸ǡ ؾɡ. Ũ׸Ǣ ţ, â , â, Ǣ . Ţ á ¡ ׸ټ ¡ Ȣ 츢ȡ. 츨 Ȣ Ţ â ã¡ 츢. ռ Ƣ, Ҩɸ¡ âĢ Ţ. ̾ ؾ ۨ¢ ؾ¢츢ȡ: 

They are the irresponsible game of a young man who dared not write stories and so amused himself by falsifying and distorting (without any aesthetic justification whatever) the tales of others. 

Ȣ, ɢ ը¡ ž . . Ģ â ɢ Ψ¢ ɡ 째 â Ũ¢ Ψ¢ θȡ. 츢 ¡ ׸Ǣ ¢ , Ţ ɢټ и. ɡ Ȣ¦ ý Ψ¢ â 򾢨 Ǣ¢츢ȡ: 

A book is not an autonomous entity: it is a relation, an axis of innumerable relations. One literature differs from another, be it earlier or later, not because of the texts but because of the way they are read: if I could read any page from the present time--this one, for instance--as it will be read in the year 2000, I would know what the literature of the year 2000 would be like. 
["Note on (toward) Berard Shaw"] 
Ҿ ¡ šŢĢ 즸 Ţ¡ ž. ȡ ɧ ؾ ȡ 츢Ǣ š¢ġ Ȣ Ũ ½ ɧ š. ̨ Ũ¢ о . Ҿ ġ Ũ¢ ġ Ǣ Ҹ θǡ. Ģ ¡ ¡ȡ ܼ ը  
ġ Ȣ ǡ . Ũ¢ ţ Ƣ¢ Ţžɡ "ʸǢ ĸ" ġ. ɧ Ũ â â Ҿ ؾ , Ȣ ب¡ Ũ ġ. Ȣ ȡ ȡ ġ. The Garden of Forking Paths ġ ¡ Ȣ 
Ҿ-- šǢ-Ţè¡ɡ,  ؾ . ¢ġ á Ƣ¡ áǢ θǢ ġž â θ--¢ Ȣ Ȣɡ ܼ. 1941 ʧħ 
Ģ Ţè¢Ģ (Structuralist Narratoloy) ɡ츢 츢. Ţè âǢ ͸ȡ. ¢ š Ǣ¢ â׸ 츢ȡ. ǡ ȧ . ɡ â . ʧ ġ 츢 . ھ¢ 
Ҩɸ þ¢ ¢ Ţ Ţθ. 

Ȣ ¸ 째 ţš째 ɾ. šʊ Ţ셡 ؾ§ Ţ . Ȣ ǧ 측 Ţǡ Ȣ ţ . 츢¡ بǡŸ (Literary Entities), ( ¾ Ũ ġ) Ө ׸ ɨŧ¡, ɨŧ¡ Ȣ ŧ¡ á 째 Ҩ , 𼾡, . ɡ ӨȨ Ȣ Baroque Ũ¨Ȩ§ 츢ȡ. ġ Ƣ Ǣ ھ á Ĩ Ȩ šθȡ. ȡ ʼ ¢, ¢, Ţ Ȣ š򨾧 á . á Ȣ ã¡ , ɡ Ȣ ã¡ ¡ ¢ ͨԽ 츨 ؾ¢츢ȡ. 츨 ĢŢ Ǣ¡ . (1956) 1980Ǣ ⢠Ƣ츢ȡ. "âɢ ý" Ȣ ɧ¡ Ţš Ψø Ţ Ţ âɢ ý Ţ̸. ¡, ؾ "" (?) ¢ġ â Ȩ Ǣ Ţθ Ţè. ɡ "ؾ" ٨¢Ģ " " š â ո. ġ, ؾ Ȣ š¢ġ ո ¡â θ? ¢ ¡? " âŢ â ¡ иȡ ?" иȡ . â ۨ ɡ ȡ. ã¡ Ũ ħ Ţ ȡ. âɢ ý Ȣ Ţâ ؾ¢츢ȡ 째 â ? (1969) Ψ¢. 째 Ψ¢ () () š Ţ ھ ȡ. ¢ Ч о ¢츢 ȡ. âɢ ý Ȣ Ţ ¢ 츢 áġ (Roland Barthes: The Death of the Author) Ψ¢ Ǣ¡ է ⨠Ȣ 츢ȡ. ը¡ (ب ܼ ġ) âɡ ھǢ Ȣ âɢ ǡ ھǢθ. â ٨¢ Ţ ھǢ. ɡ ɸ ̨Ţ. âɢ ń? " " Ǣ â ġ ¡? âɢ Ȣ ġ Ģ âɢ ý Ȣ¦ ġ ¢Ģ ž ţ Ţá 째 (Michel Focault) Ƣ ȡ. ⨠ 
ب Ũ  Ţ Ţ â¨ þǢ ź иȡ. ɡ ġ , , Ⱦ ¾ .  The Other (The Book of Sand) ¢ ŢĢ , Ȣ š쨸 Ţ . Ũ¢ 
ɡ Borges and Myself ¢ . Ȣ ̨ Ţ ۉ Ţθ. Ţ š ĸ Ш Ǣɡ š. ɽ¢ ĺ . Ǣ ɢ ϾĢ Ƣ¡ Ũ ĸ ȡ. ɡ ھ¢ á ȡ. ӾĢ 1970Ǣ Ƣ Ǣ Ƣ Ǣ. 측 Ҿ Ƣ ź Ҿ Ƣ Ģ ڸ. 

. â ġâ Ģ¡ 򾅡 š Ȣθȡ: 

"ġ š츢, , Ǣ, Ȣ, ž () . 츢 θ, ⢠ 
Ţ " 
(Julio Cortazar en la Universided Central de Veneuela", Escritura No.1, Jan-June 1976, p. 162.)

Borges on Stamps è (The Congress) ؾ¢츢ȡ. ̾¢ â ķ ġ. ᢠȢ쨸¢ Ǣħ š վ ؾ ž. ¢ T.S. Ģ 󾾡 , ¡ Ģ 츢 (W. B. Yeats) Ţ Ȣ¢츢ȡ. Ţǡ â . š Ţ è . 츢 Ţ Ţɨ. Ģ Ģ ¡ ̾ ɢ Ƣ¢ Ƣ츢ȡ. ɡ Ţ. ¢ ţ Ģ Ţá ġŢ Ţ Ţ츢ȡ . ġ о ǡ Ţ . ¢ Ƣ Χ Ţ ɢ츢 ž ؾ ܼ âŢ츢ȡ. 

"When I write, I write because a thing has to be done. I don't think a writer should meddle too much with his own work. He should let the work write itself. . .  (Paris Review Interviews: 4th Series. P. 126) 
¸ ĸǡ ¡ǡ Ȣ Ǣ Ǣ Ţ Ģ Ţ θȡ. ȡ Ţ âټ Ҩɸ ̨ Ţ. Seven Pillars of Wisdom ؾ T. E. Lawrence, Rudyard 
Kipling ç ŢŢ̸ǡ 츢. Ţ Ģ Χ¡ǢĢ Ǣ 'Ŋ' Ũ Ǣ Ţ ʸ 򾢨 . Ǣ á, Ȣ Ȣ Ũ ¸ǡ Ȣ š츢. ɢ 򾨸 ¸ ú . 

"ç " (Local Colour) Ţ Ǣ ȡ ¡ ھ . ÅĢ ̧ 츢 ¡ 츢 ġá Ũ Ȣ. Ȣ Ǣ ¢ ¾ŢĢ Ƣ¡ ç 򾢨 Ţ ȡ ھ . â𧼡 â Ţ ɡ¡ . â𧼡 â, "ç " Ţ ؾ, " Ǣš â¡Ǣ" Ţ. Ȣ¢ , š쨸  
Ţ¢ . ɡ â𧼡 ĸǢ š Ţ Ħ ȡ , ̨š, , 츢 š ǻ . ȡ 򾨸 ç ( ç, 򾢨 ġŸ ¡, , źǢ Ţξ ) Ţ Ǩ측 . ɡ Ө  
ĸĢ и " ¢ ĸ 쨸 ټ" š. ɢ ¸ ¸ɡ â𧼡 Ţ. â𦼡 1912 ¢ . â𧼡 â 1930 ؾɡ. â𧼡 Ȣ Ţ Ɋ Ȣ ȢҸǡ . Ţ Ȣ . 1955 ؾɡ. 

"ç " Ȣ Ţâš 츢 Ψ¡ 'The Argentine Writer and Tradition' ġ. 째 () ç â "ç " Ţ Ţ ȡ . ؾ Ģ ̧ ž. , ¡Ţ ¾ , ɢ Ө¢ ¡ ɨ ؾ . ȡ š 츢 š š ȡ . Ģ : ɡŢ ç θǢ á¡ŢĢ о. ɡ š 츢  򾢨 Ţš. ɢ ɢ 츢 Ψ¢ Ţ 츢ȡ. , 'â' ɢ 츢Ģ Ţĸ ŧ ɢ¡Ţ â . ¢ɢĢ Ţ ׼ šŧ â¡ ġ ȡ. 

Ţ Ӿ Ţ Fervor de Buenos Aires, 64 Ǣ Ţ . ź Ƹټ ( 300þ) Ǣ¢. Ţ ŢŢ. ź ̾ Ţ Ө¢ Ţ¡. Nosotros 츢 â ç ¡¢ 100 þ ȡ. â ĸ ̧ǡ ¢ â θ Ȣ . " 측 Ţ Φ 츢ȡ¡?" ¡ Ţާ Ȣɡ. ". ؾ ȡ ܼ ȡ . 즸θǢ ø Ţ ġ 
" ȡ . ¡ Լ Ш. ź ź Ǣ¢ Ţ ¢ ڨ ¢ Ţġ Ţ . 1924 Ɋ м § Ţá Ţ âġ Ţ¡ 쾢 Ǣ츢 Ȣ . 

ټ . : Victoria Ocampo Elsa Astete Millan. Ţ짼â¡ 츢 Sur â Ƣ. 17 Ƹ¡ Ũ ¢. ¢ ܼ 1967 ռ, ռ Ƣ . ŢŢħ Ţ¢ Ţ. 

1927 Ũ ɦġ ؾɡá ġ 츽 ý 츢 âǢ Ţ 󾾡 о. ɡǢ Ţ þ š âƢ. 

Ȣ Ψ¡, ȡá 츨 . â ġâá á Ũ ġâ ( Ţ ܼ) ؾ¢츧 ܼ Ţټ âŢ츢ȡ. š 츢 Ţ Χ ؾɡ. ( The Brass Plaque Said 'Borges', Paul Theroux, 'The Old Patagonian Express' 1979) ¡ Ǣ ġââ Ţ Ţ Ţɨ Ȣɡ. Ȣ ᧠󾾢. The Garden of Forking Paths, [1942, later part of Ficciones, 1944]. ̾ ؾ ۨ¢Ģ Ȣġ: 

"Writing long books is a laborious and impoverishing act of foolishness: expanding in five hundred pages an idea that could be perfectly explained in a few minutes. A better procedure is to pretend that those books already exist and to offer a summary, a commentary." 
̾ ؾ ġâá á 亢, [The Man Without Qualities, 3 volumes], , Remembrance of Things Past 6 ̾ ؾ ġâ Ȣġ ը š Ȣ ȢŢ. Ţ ɡ 츢ȡ. 

"The central problem of novel-writing is causality."    ["El arte narrativo y la magia" [Narrative Art and Magic, 1932] in Discusion [Discussion, 1932]] 

ը á Ǣħ Ũ Ũ ¢ , Ȣܼ 󾾢 ؾ¢츢ȡ. ɡ Ţ â, ̾ǡ ﺢ Ţɡ. Ȣ ̧ǡ¡ âɢŢ 11 ġ 츢. ؾ Anatomy of Melancholy â Ģ 𼾢. ̧ǡ¡š á송 () ɢ ĸ ¸ . Ţ Ƣ¢ Ӿ á ɢ á Ţɡ. 

1950Ǣ ը ǡ Nestor Ibarra Roger Callois Ţ Ƣ¢ Ƣ. ƢҸ áŢ Ǣ Ũ Ȣ, ɡŢ â ĸ 츢 Ǣ â, ¡ â¡. â ý 1961 Fomentor Prize (International Publisher Prize) . á Ǣ£ Ţվ ţ 
â ġâ Ţ Ӧ μ . â ȢŢ Ţ ĸ ƢǢ Ƣ. м ç . 1932 Ǣ History of Eternity 37 þ Ţ. 1966 Ingram Merril Foundation ռ Ţվ . 

šǢ Ҽ á . ը â ȡ ܼ ¢ áĢ źġ . Ȣ âž š쨸 Ȣ Ψ¢ иȡ. 1927 ڨ  . ﺢ 1950 Ȣ ġ ¢. ɡ Ţ ɦȡ ɢ¡ ĸ ̿ǡ Jose Marmol Paul Groussac է . á ¢ ɢ ĸ Ţ áɡ 츢  
š쨸 . 1955 áɢ ţ ú ɢ¡Ţ ĸ ̿á Ţ . Ţ ǡ Esther Zembroain de Torres Victoria Ocampo է 򾨸¦ ʨ . VictoriaOcampo Ţ 츢 Sur , 츢š ɢ¡Ţ ĸ ̿á .  
츧 ¡ ȧȢ, ɡ Ө á 1975 Ũ Ţ¢ . Poem of the Gifts (1950) Ţ¢ 9,00,000 Ǣ Ҿ Ȣ ؾɡ. 

1955 Ģ 1970 Ũ¢ġ Ţ 츢 ¡ Ţǡ 󾾢 . ĸ, Ţ ; Ţ Ţ, Ũ Ҹ â Ţ , Ȣ 14â Ţ . ž ؾ ¡ ɾħ Ǣ . ÿ 
Ũ Ţ â츢 Ţ Ţ . θ Ţ 11 â --Ţ ĸ ؾɡ. ը Ţ ý Ȣ, Ӿġ ú ɢ Ȣ, á Ȣ, š Ȣ, â ġâ Ȣ. . . ¡ Ţ ҸǢ Ţ ؾɡ. 

7 Nights Ţ Ψ ̾¢ 7 ΨøǢ Ȣ ["On Blindness"] ¢ Ȣ 츢ȡ. Other Inquisitions (1952) Ψ ̾ 츢 ̾. 

1970 ڸ ̾ [Doctor Brodie's Report, Book of Sand] (Straightforward Narratives) ۨøǢ ؾɡ. ¢ âĢ 츢. ġ Ģ ؾ ž ĸо. Ǣ 򾨸 Ţ Ţ Ţš¡ . ؾ ž 
¡ Ţ š. Hugo Rodriguez Moroni â . ɨ ¡ ؾ Ȣ ȡ. 

"But after all, writing is nothing more then a guided dream" 
[Introduction to Doctor Brodie's Report, p.13] 
Ţ 츢Ⱦ, á ¡ , ɢ (In the past, I tried to believe in a personal God, but I do not think I try anymore) ¢ 쨸 ȡ. ɡ š ¢츢ȡ Ţ š. ɡ Ţ ոȡ: "God is in the Making". ɡ ã¡ ٨ 
Ǣ ̨ȧ . 𼡸 ø Ҿ . â ã¡ . Ģ ܼ â . â â â ܼ á Ţθȡ. ĸ ̨ Ш츼ǡ 츢ȡ . Ţâš Ţɸ, ,  
Ģ ب¢ Ţ ɡ šھ . ȡ ǡ Չɡ ¡ Չ. 

Ţ Ȣ Ȣá Jamie Alazraki 򾢨 "A Vindication of the Fales Basilides," Ψ¢ Ţâ ؾ¢츢ȡ. Gnostic Ǣ ɢ ¾ ¢ š 365 츢. 365 š š Ш ǡ Ÿθ. Ȣ ¢ ̨ ǡ ɡ š š. ۼ . . (Stabb, Martin S. Borges Revisited. Boston: Twayne, 1991) ʅ Ţ ĸ ڸ ڨ š ɢġ. () §¡ ̸Ǣ Ģ 񼾡 â. Valentinus ը. šɺ Ȣ . ( Big Bang Theory) Ţ ¢ áâ - Ǣ Ƣ. ؾ þ¡ Ǣ 츧 ţ ¡. -Ȣ 򾨾 Ţ . 

ġ , ɢ Ȣ 𼾢, ? 츢ȡ . ü () ¡ ܼ Ţ â ħ Ģ ܼ Ţ 츢 â. , Ȣ * Ţ . (: Amelia Barili, Conversations with Jorge Luis Borges, 1998). 

š 측 ɡʸ š츢 ȡ ȡ . Ũ š ɡ š . Ũ â ɡ. š¡ . . áĢ š. ¸ Ģ Ţ ɡ. ɢ â Ƣ¢ ¡ ɾ Ţ¢ ¢. Ţ â Ţ Ţ . 츢 Ũ ¡ Ǣ ˦ 
. â 츢 ȡ ӾĢ Ţ ¸ɡ š Ţ. Ƣ . ɢ Ƣ¢ Ӿ šʊ. ¨ Ǣ ɡ á Ţ. ̨š ؾ Ţ š. Ģ â 󾾡 վɡ. ɧ Ţ 츢šǢ Ģ . ġ ɢ 츢 "" ¡ Ȣθȡ: 

". . .My fondness for such a northern past has been resented by my more nationalistic countrymen, who dub me an Englishman, but I hardly need point out that many things English are utterly alien to me: tea, the Royal Family, 'manly' sports, the worship of every line written by the uncaring Shakespeare." 
[An Autobiographical Essay, 1971] 
Ǣ  ¡ 츢. ġ ý Ȣɡ Ȣ ŢξĢ Ţ츢 θ. ¢ ۼ Ţ¢ Ũ Ţ Ţèǡ ȢҸǡ ξ. Ţ Ҩɸ ĸ , ( Ţ) ɢǡ Ȣ Ƣ,  
Ŋǡš Ţ째 ( 󧾡 ġ) 츢¢ġ ׸Ǣ ž ǡ 츢. ,츣, áŢ , Ǣ Өȧ , Ģ¡ɡ , ġ 惧á, 측 Ţ Ҹ ǡ 
âŢ. 츣 ¢ ʿ 츢 Ģ¡ɡ ոȡ Ţ и. [Herbert J. Brant, The Queer Use of Communal Women in Borges' "El muerto" and "La intrusa", Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis]. 섥šĢ ġ ɢ 츢 Ǣ ׸. 

1956 ؾ ¡ The Sect of the Phoenix , ø θ. Tlon, Ucbar, Orbis Tertius ¢ Ǣ ҽ ո: "Copulation and Mirrors are abominable". Ǣ ž ȡ. â ('Ulrike'-from The Book of Sand) ھ ŢŢ ؾ¢츢ȡ. â ¢ Ţ Ţ ξ 
٨ . 

Ţ Ţ ý â Ũ ý վ ¾ Ţθ. š š Ţ ŸǢ ȢŢθ. Ÿ š׸, 
̸ǡ ġڸ, Ȣ Ţ񧸡, á š . ¡ š, ȢĢ Ģ ʸ Ǣ׼ 츢. ġ Ţ Ģ . â 򨾧 š ̾Ⱦ ȡ 츢Ţ . Ţ Ҩɸ Ũ¢ ɢ âġ 츢 ¡ Ţθ. , 쨸¢ ĸ ȼ ǡ . ý Ţ . ̧¢ Ǣ¢ . 

Ţ ŧ Ȣ Ȣ š ġ ġȡâ George Steiner иȡ: 

ŧ ġ ¡. ĸ Ǣ ǢĢ ţ ټ ̾ . ¡ Ҹ, Ȣθ, šá â Ǣ ̾ Ψ¢ âŢ ĸǢ š̸ȡ. Ƣ Ţ¡Ǣ ħ áĢ ħ ļ Ȣ ̾¢ Ǣ ȡ.
Ţ Չ Ţ. Ţ Ţ¨ š츢ɡ. Ҩɸ Ţ Ψøټ ġ. ¡ ĸ 츢, áǢ Ȣ Ţ Ţ̸  Ţ Ǣ׸ ڸ Ţ . á Ũ츢ȡ. The Book of Imaginary Beings (1969).Margarita Guerrero (?) á ¡â. ,  
ո ? Ţ ոȡ . â ȢŢ ¡, š ţ츢 ø Ţ̸, ɢ , þ ɨ Ȣ Ģ â ġ. 

â ƸǢ ը áâá 1961 . áŢĢ ¡ Ũ¢ ġ ƸǢ ø ɡ. 1963 á ½ . ¸  ç . 1967 š Ƹ ռ áâ¡ â측Ţ Ţ. š Ƹ Ƣ á ¡šɢ . 1973 á ĸ ̿ Ţ áɡ . 1975 츢. ý ը ¡ 99 ¾ ɡ. Ţ Ţ ̾¡ The Book of Sand Ǣ¡. 

1969 ú ţ ½ . 1973 Fifth Biennial Jerusalem Prize . 1976 ռ ɢ Ţ Ш ը Ţ. 1980 ɢ â͸Ǣħ â Cervantes Prize ɢ Gerardo Diego . Ţ Ţ 츢 Ţи Ȣ츢ȡ. 1986 ɢšŢ 
ɡ. š ը â¾â¡ Maria Kodama Ũ . 

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