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â:..â                                    Editor: V.N.Giritharan
2005 66 -
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ȢŢ!
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θ ! 
⧸ ! 
(Subduction Zones Drift & Sea-Floor Spreading)

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B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear), ɼ

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" Ģ θ ¾ ç, âġ Ƣ¡ Ĩ ¡ .  ġ á 򦾡 , պ ¾츼 Ţ¡ .  Ģ ШŢ 򾾢, ̾Ǣ Ч ¢ 측 , â "- ŢĢ ¡, [Glomar Challenger Deep Sea Exploration (1970)]

" 𺢨 Ţ ¢ 츢.  ġ  ո. Ш¢ â ʸ ؾ, 츼 ¢ Ĩ .  м Ш ¨ ¨ , 츼 [Undersea Basement Fossils] Ńâ Ǣ  ¾ "- 슦 [Co-Leader, Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution]

"450 Ģ θ â측Ţ á ¢ ɢ [Polar Ice Dome] . â¡ ɢ 츢 ȸ ġ.  [Paleo-magnetism] â¡ ̾ ո ɢ â ո.  â¡ ̾ ⧸ ŨŢ ¡ 8000 ż째 . 250 Ģ θ â측Ţ á ɢ¡ ¢ , è ż â측Ţ ̾ Ƣ¡ Ȣ . Ǣ çǡ â측, ġ Ǣ â Ը Ȣ ¢ "- á â, ¡ Ƹ.

ۨ:

, , ĸ š ¢â ġ 쾢 Өȧ ¾ Ȣ ɡ, Ȣ θ ξ 츢.  θ , ¾ Ȣ áɨ ȡ Ȩ ȡ ¡.  ɡ â θ [Laws of the Universe] " ¾" [Disorderly Order Hypothesis] θ Ţ ġ! 

ġ š ո !  ɡ ո š ڸ즸 ո!  á 򦾡 ¡ ! â측 żӨ¢ !  ¡Ţ , ¡츢 ¢츢!  š¢ ׸ ż ¢ š ׸ 츢 ! 

ż â측, á Ǣ 츢 ո!  â측Ţ Ģɢ¡ ¢ ġ Ċ ż â 츢!  ġ  [Mid-Atlandic Tectonic Plate Ridge] 째 ġ Ţ ո [Surtsey, Iceland] 1963 14 ż ġ Ģ ˦ â¡ Ҿ Ȣ!

ʸŢ ӾĢ 1967 , 1969 򦾡 ĸǢ [Transantarctic Mountains] ɢȸǢ ɡ Ш Ţ̸Ǣ ̸ [Fossil Fragments of Land Creatures] , â Ţﻡ ܼ [National Science Foundation] .  âǢ Ȣ Χ Ţ ĢʧáÊ [Lystrosaurus].  ʸŢ ӾӾ Ц [Index Fossil] Ţ.  Ţ̸ â측, ¡, ɡ θǢ 180-225 Ģ θ š󾾡 Ȣθ. 

̧ġ Ģ ½:

1968 "츼 Ш " [Deep Sea Drilling Project] .  ̧ġ Ģɢ¡ ¢ Ш ɢ [California Offshore Oil Drilling Co. Global Marine Inc] ¡â.  ȸǢ 20,000 Ш¢ â 츢 .  Ţﻡ [National Science Foundation] Ƣ¡ â 즸 Ǣ.  â측Ţ Ÿ [JOIDES Gruop (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling)]. 

̧ġ Ш Ţ 1968 Ӿ Ш¢ 셢 Ũ̼Ţ 12,000 Ѩ áĢ  ¢ !  Ũ Ģ ¢ Ǣ ¡ ܼ ! ȡ ШǨ ġ , ġ ¡ ո . 1968 ھ¢ â측Ţ ¢ , ġ Ш Ш¢ â θ .

̧ġ ռǡ 400 ШǸ ȸǢ â Ҿ ⧸ Ȣ ¢츢.  ĸ Ţ, .  ʸ ؾ [Oldest Sediments] 160 Ģ θ Ҿ 񼡸 ¢츢 .  ý Ţ ãġ ȸ 4 Ģ θ .  ⧸ Ţﻡɢ ¢ ¨ 4.5 Ģ 񼡸 츢ȡ.  ɡ ⧸ ¨ 180 Ģ 񼡸 θȡ.

1970 ̧ġ š â측 ż 츢 š , ¾ 츢 ո 츢ȡ.  ¡ θ , Ģ¢ ɡ [Mount Edna, Sicily] â Ȩ, ã, 츢 θǢ Ŀ ̸! ¡ ¾ Ȣ ¢츢ȡ!

ɡ 츢 á :

Sumatra Fault System󧾡ɺ¡ á է Ŀ [Sumatran Fault] 1100 Ȣθ.  2004 ʺ 26 Ţ ɡ Ģ ȧ, ɢ Ţ. Ŀ ɡ  ȢŢ : 700-800 , : 60 !  48,000 [800x60] , ¢ 򾡸 츢 Ө 츢 ɡ èĸ ç츢 !  Ŀ  [Plate Tectonic Fault] á ! ġθǡ 츼 Ŀ 츢 ġ ո. 1833 â , Mw:9 [Mercalli Scale] Ƣ .. 

á 1100 , 250 .  180 ¡, Ƣ θ.  á Ƣ [Sumatran Fault Trench] Ȣ ĸ  ƢǢ â.  Ч Ũ 1100 񼾡 ¡ Ȣ ¢츢.  [Ocean Plate Subduction Process] áŢ 򦾡, Ƣ ¡ ҧ 츢!

¢ Ը [Mesozoic Era] , 240 Ģ θ Ȣ [Subduction Zone], á .  á ¡ Ũ.  Ģ θǡ ¡ ڸǢ â á󾾢 Ƣ ׸, Ҹ 츢ȡ.  ¡ Ũ¡, Ŀ - ø [Subduction Related I-type, Volcanic Arc, Calc-Alkaline type] .  ⢠áﺢ Ţ [Strontium Isotope Initial Ratio] , ̾ [Magmas from Upper Mantle with Subduction Contamination] 󾾡 Ȣ θ. 

[Ar40-Ar39 Dating], , áﺢ â [Rubidium-Strontium (Rb-Sr) Dating] á, á ڸǢ âǢ ¨ .  5.5 Ӿ 192 Ģ и .  [Sulit Granite: 192 Ma], [Lassi Pluton: 52 Ma], [Lolo Pluton: 12 Ma], [Sungaipenuh Granite: 5.5 Ma] [Ma (Million Years Ago)].  á ȸǢ 쾢 á Ը [Jurassic Era] [193-15 Ma] Ģ θ ¢ Ȣ.

׸ ׸ θ:

ĸ 񼡸 ¢ ׸ Ţ âġ. 1. ׸. 2. ׸.  ׸ [Continental Islands] ȡ ӾĢ .  м է , θ.  ¡Ţ ġ.  20,000 θǢ м ׸ ¨ ڸ.  ׸Ǣ ʸ, ¢ и [Fauna & Flora, Species] Ǩ 츢.  Ȣ Ţ¡ и [Endemic Species] .

׸ [Ocean Islands] ȡ ?  ¢ ŢĢ Ш¢ âĸ Ȣ , ׸ á θ. š¢ ׸, ġ ׸ ý ġ.  , ɨ ׸.  ġ  째 ġ [Surtsey, Iceland] 1963 14 ż ġ Ģ â¡ Ҿ Ȣ!  ׸ м ž.  , ʸ, Ţ Ƣ¡ . , Ţ Χ ׸Ǣ .  пâ ɢ ľ ¢ и ׸Ǣ ¡.  Ģ ׸Ǣ и  [Centres of Speciation] 츢. Ȣ Ţ и [Endemic Species] ̾Ǣ ĸ ׸. 

Ģ Ƹ â

kUMARIKKANDAM

1960 â측, á θ 즸 Ǣ, 츼Ģ á¡ Ţ, Ƹ ɢ¡ â 츢ȡ.  Ӿġ Ģ Ģ 쨸 [Ultra-Sonic Probing] ̾ ¢ 򦾡 .  ɡ 1960 Ţ! 1960-1970 θǢ ¡â 츼 ŨǢ, â ţ θ.  츼 , ׸ ¢ Ţ ż ̾Լ , ġ [Chagos, Archipelago] Ũ 2000 Ũ â â. ¢ θ [..8000] ɢ Ը [During the Ice Age] 츼Ģ Ȣ â â ġ .

KUMARIKKAnDAM:EVIDENCE FROM SANGAP PADALKAl

ɢ Ը ɢ Ħ 𼿣 š .  ĸ , ׸ ̾Ǣ !  á׼ ġ, ǡâ׼ , Ģ¡׼ 丢ɢ , Ƹм , á š ɢ¡ ׸ 측¡Ţ м վθ!  Ƹм , â š ħ ȡ 츢. š¢ θ š ɢ ؾ á¢, ¢ ȡ , Ȣθ.  ɢԸ Ȣ ¡ ɢ ȸ ո š ¡ â ¢ġ ھ¡ 츢.  ŢŢ â Ȣ â측 Ӿ, Ģ¡ Ũ , ׸, ׸, 󧾡ɢ¡Ţ ׸ Ȩ â á Ȣǡ. 

Jayabarathan"â¡ " [Lemuria Continent] 츼 ̾¢ ӾĢ Ȣ 19 ȡ š Ģ [Geologist, Philip Sclater].  Ţ짼â Ţ ¾ ڧš Ţ ɢ š ̸ [Lemurs] ¢츢ȡ.  Ȣ þ [Fossils of Lemurs] â측Ţ, 측¡Ţ .  Ţš¡ Ɋ [Ernst Haeckel] â¡Ţ ¢ Ţ [Genes] ¡ 츼Ģ 󾾡 ¢ Ȣ¨ Ģ â¡ (â ) ȢŢ츢ȡ.

()

:
1. The Continental Mosaic -Reader's Digest Atlas of the World [1987]
2. Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Earth By Peter Smith [1985]
3. Earth's Restless Crust -ABC's of Nature, Reader's Digest [1984] 
4. The Long Journey of Continents By: Ronald Schiller -The Marvels & Mysteries of The World Around US, Reader's Digest Publication [1972]
5. Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics [www.zephryus.co.uk/geography/home.html] (Mar 20, 2003)
6. Pangaea, Gondwana, Laurasia, Plate Tectonics, Alfred Wegener From: Wikipedia Encyclopedia 
7. Theory of Continental Drift By: Jim Cornish, Newfoundland, Canada (Sep 2001)
8. Continental Frift, Geology & Oceanography. [Several Internet Articles]
9. Everyday Geography By: Kevin McKinney (1993)
10 Eduard Suess, Austrian Scientist From: Wikipedia Encyclopedia
11 Our Changing Earth By: Tusco Wilson Ph.D. Frontiers of Science, National Geographic Society [1982]
12 This Changing Earth By: Samuel Matthews, National Geographic Society [Jan 1973]
13 Our Restless Planet Earth Rick Gore By: National Geographic Society [Aug 1985]
14 Fossils, Annals of Life Written in Rocks By: David Jeffery, National Geographic Society [Aug 1985]
15 The Earth's Fractured Surface By: National Geographic Society [1995]
16 Physical Earth By: National Geographic Society [1998]
17 The Shaping of a Continent, North America's Active West [1995]
18 National Geographic Picture Atlas of our World [1990]
19 Differences Between Continental & Oceanic Islands [www.abdn.ac.uk/zoohons/lecture1]
20 The Evolution of the Sumatran Earthquake Fault System, Indonesia, Andy McCarthy. Ph.D. [July 9, 2002]
21 Isotopic Dating of Sumatran Fault System By: Imtihanah & MPhil 
22 The Sumatran Fault System By Professor Kerry Sieh & Danny Natawidjaja [Nov 1999] 
23 Kumari Kandam & Lemuria [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemuria_(continent)
24 Kumari Kandam By: Chitta Ranjan Myilvaganan, Sydney, Australia. [Jan 30, 2005] 

jayabarat@tnt21.com [S. Jayabarathan (February 23, 2005)]


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