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2004 57 -
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ȢŢ!
ø 쾢! 
[Energy from The Ocean Waves, Tides &  Thermal Power] 

. þ 
B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear), ɼ

츼 򾢧,
⢠򾢧
Ȣ 쾢!
!

ocean powerۨ: ȡ 셢¢ [Milkyway Galaxy] ⢠쾢 ¢ , , , á Ȩ šâ ո!  Ȣ ¢ , ⢠쾢 Ţ ĸ â ﺢ վ θ!  áâ ɢ ̸Ǣ 23 Ģ , ⢠ţ Ţ, 250 Ģ ⢠â 쾢 [Heat Equivalent of Buring 250 Billion Barrels of Oil] â !  쾢¢ ¢ 쾢¡ Ȣɡ, , â측 Ţ ɢθ â !  ̾¢ , â 20 C ʸâ ¡ 츢ȧ, ̾ ̾ ھ¡ ġ! 

Ȩ [Tidal Energy] ú쾢 Ȣ ţ â ȡθǡ !  ..787 á ɢ, , âʉ øǢ " Ũ " [Tidal Flour Mills] ġڸǢ Ȣθ!  Ȣ [High Tide] šâ [Ponds], [Low Tide] , [Water Wheels] !  ɢ !  ȡ Ũ Ţ , ¡츢 и ¢ ! 

ﺢ 쾢

ocean powerĸ θǢ øǢ ġ 쾢¢ [Renewable Ocean Energy], [Potential Estimation] 10 Ģ MW ҽ ڸȡ!  쨸¢ 𼫨 Ģ [Tidal Energy] 3 Ģ MW ڸ! 60,000 MW [2% Tidal Energy] ȧ ̾ Ȣθ!  ĸ â 240 MW " á" 쾢 [La Rance River Tidal Power Plant] á 1966 Ÿ 300,000 Ǣ Ũ ո!  ɼŢ š ¡ Ũ̼Ţ [Bay of Fundy] 25-30 [High Tide] 쾢 (800-14,000) MW !  1980 20 MW â ɡĢ 쾢 [Annapolis River Tidal Generating Station, Nova Scotia] Ÿ 4500 30 Ģ Kwh ɢ Ǣ ո!  ĸ 20 MW , [Tidal Power Turbine] ɡĢ [2004] ո! 

Ũ¨ ¢ġ 쾢 â, , ɸ Ǣ, âǢ, ɢ ĸǢ, ŢĢ [Geothermal] 츢 츢ȡ!  Ȣ Ȣ 쾢 , ġθ ɢâ ¡ ǡ Ţ!  ﺢ, ɢ ӨȸǢ 쾢 ¡â .  Ӿġ Ө, , " ¢" [Heat Exchanger] , [Low Boiling liquid] Ţ¡츢 츢, ɢ¢ .  ɢ Ţ¡ Ȣ , [High Tides, Low Tides] Ǣ θ , .  ȡ Ө ȡ Ҹ , .

" 쾢 Ө" [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)] , â쾢 츨 Ţ ¡ ɢ θǢ ڿ ĺ쾢¡ [Alternate Energy Source] Ţ.  ﺢ Ǩ 쾢¡ ¡ â "ҿ" [Desalination] ʿ , â ¡ ǡ Ţ.  м OTEC Ƣ Ǿ, š ¢â Ţ , ¢â š 츢! 

쾢 ĸ θǢ ɸ 

ĸ򾢧 ӾӾ ɢ Ǣ [Tropical Seas] 쾢 1881 ġ Ȣ, Ţﻡɢ š [Jacques Arsene d'Arsonval].  רè Ȣ Ģ 쾢 Ţ 1920 Ӿġ , á ¡ Ī [Georges Claude].  1926 OTEC ׸ 1930 Ī Ţ " Ȣ Ө¢", [Open Cycle OTEC System] ɨ 22 KWe 쾢 츢ɡ!  1935 Ī Ţ ľ Ȣ , 10,000 [Cargo Vessel] Å ШӸĢ ɡ. 

1956 š ﺢɢ Ȣ Ө¢ 3 MWe [Megawatt Electrical] ʨ , â측Ţ ¢ . ɡ Ȣ 쾢 [Hydroelectric Station] ¢𼾡, ȧȡ !  1974 š¢¢ Ÿ [Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii (NELHA)] , 1979 Ӿ 50 KWe [Mini-OTEC] ¢ . 

1980 â측Ţ â쾢 Ш¸ [Dept of Energy] OTEC-1 Ȣ Ө .  Ȣ , â Ш Ǣ OTEC-1 쾢 .  1981 Ӿ 100 KWe ¢ . 1997 ɢ Ƹ, ȢШ ܼ , ԧá Ǣ 1 MW OTEC ʨ , 2000 Ģ .  ۨ Ȣ Ȣ¡ɡ, 25 MW, 50 MW OTEC þ . 

쾢 쾢¡ Ţ Өȸ 

ocean power쾢¢ , Ţ 쾢 !  ¢ ¡ ĸǢ , ú쾢¡ ġ!  , Ǣ , 쾢 θ.  ġ â ؾ ݼ츢 ո.  ⢠쾢 ¢ 츢 ĸ ̸.  ɡ [High & Low Tides] Ţ Ţ, â¢ Ţ ý .  Ҹ, , 쾢 ǡ վθ.  ɡ â 쾢, ¡ θ.

쾢 [Tidal Energy] 쾢¡ ӾĢ ã "Ĩ" [Barrage] .  ĸ ¡ Ũ̼ ̾, Ĩ ̾ !  Ч ڸ , Ĩ ̾ !  Ĩ¢ , 쾢 θ.  Ĩ¢ [High Tide] .  ĸ ç, !  Ȣ ǧ ¢, ¢ Ш ֧ Ш ¡ 쨸 Ÿ , 쾢 򾢨 ġ!  ĸ 240 MWe [Mega Watt Electrical] â " á" 쾢 á 1966 Ӿ ո!  Ĩ : [760 ]!  : 45 [13.4 ]!  쾢 300,000 򦾡 Ԩ !

ocean power

ĸ ç츢 쾢, ӾĢ 쾢¡츢, 쾢¡ Өȸ ¡ θ.  Ӹ Ҹ, Ҹ Ţ 쾢 ɢ ¡â .  ӾӨ:  ¢ Ţ̨ šǢ [Tapered Channel] " ¡ " [Fixed Oscillating Water Column Devices (OWC)].  Ө:  " [Floating Oscillating Water Column Devices (OWC)] ¢ġ, 򾢧ġ ġ Ÿ ġ.  Ģ ġ ġ.  ¢ Ȣ 츼, ⢠Ƣ Ţ ĸ ﺢ Ţ ո!  Ģ ¢ 측 Ţ, ŢŢ, Ţ â¢ .  Ģ , , 쾢¡ , 쾢¡ ġ [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)]. 

Ţ ӨȸǢ 쾢¡ θ. 
Ӿ Ө:  Ȣ [Closed-Cycle Plants (OTEC)].  Ţ Ȣ¢ [Heat Exchanger] 츼 ݼ츢, , .  Ш Ƣ¡ Ţ¡ Ţâ Ģ [Turbine Rotors] Ȣ, Ţ Ǣ á , Ȣ . 
Ө:  ǡ Ȣ [Open-Cycle Plants (OTEC)] Ө¢ 츼 ¢ [Boiling at Low Pressure] , áŢ Ģ Ȣ ¡â ǡ ¢ Ģ Ţظ.

ȡ Ө:  [Hybrid Plants (OTEC)].  Ǣ 츼 áŢ ̾ ۦ Ţ¡츢 Ģ .  ̾ áŢ ǢŢ , ҿ [Desalination] ʿá θ. 

Ȣ Ǣ ɢ¡, â¡ š [Low Boiling Point fluids like Ammonia, Freon etc] θ.  š Ţâ ɢ 츢, .  ǡ Ȣ Ǣ ¡ ݼ θ. Ǣ Ȣ θ ո. 

Ĩ Ȩ 쾢¡ Ш¸

â측Ţ ¢ OPTs [Ocean Power Technologies, New Jersey, USA] ɢ Ģš, 측, Ĩ 쾢 ȢШ¢ ɽ¢ .  OPTs Ȣ Ȣ 쾢 , 쾢 Ţ ơ θ.  Ȣ 100 MW ¡ ɢ 3-4 [3-4 Cents/Kwh] 1 MW ¡ ɢ 7-10 /kwh .  θǢ , , áâ ׸ ¡ 츢.

OPTs ȢШ Ȣ Ȣ :  .  40 Ũ áâ ׸ ̨šɨ.  100 MW þ ¡, ɢ 2 !  OPTs Ш ġ Ţ, ̨ !  ȡ, ⢠쾢 ŨŢ OPTs Ш Ǣ츢.  ⢠쾢 [Solar Energy] 쾢¡ š!  ⢠Ǣɨ Ȣ !  Ч ȡ ɸ [Wind Farms] ̾ ¡á ! 

[Offshore Location, Ocean Water Column (OWC) Equipment] š ը [Circular Cylinder] .  Ȩ ڼ ɢ .  ̾ .  ĸǢ 츢 , Ȣ, Ȣ ̸.  Ģ , ɢ . 쾢 쾢 !  á ġ, ¡Ţ , â¡ θ ɧ Ĩ 쾢 Ȣ Ţ .  6800 ׸ 21,000 񼾡 !  Ȣ Ĩ 쾢 ȧ , ĸ Ȣ Ȣθ! 

¡Ţ Ш 쾢 Ш

þ 1993 ȢШ ܼ [National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT)] Ţ.  ܼ Ш Ȣ¸ [Dept of Ocean Technology (DOD)] Ȣ ܼ [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras] ׼ .  Ȣ째, ġ Ш á . 

1990 150 Kw ¡Ţ Ӿ Ĩ 쾢 ¢ , ǡ ¢ ŢƢ [Wave Energy Plant at Vizhinjam, Kerala] â Ÿ, 쾢 â Ǣ Ƣ .  Ĩ Ģ ׸ θ "ġ " [Oscillating Water Column (OWC)] ¾¢ ո. 1990 ʺâ " " [Caisson] , м . Ũ Ţ 쾢 [Two Power Generation Modules] .  "ġ ¾¢" Ţ Ĩ ̸?  Ĩ ɢ Ȣ Ģ Ȣ Ţθ.  ۼ ɢ¢ θ. Ƣ .  Ĩĸ Ȣ , [Piston] Ǣ Ȣ 츢, Ģ 츢.  1997 Ӿ, þ 쾢 [Impulse Turbine] Ҽ â ո.
 
쾢 ȢШȨ [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)] ĸ θ ŧ Ţ ո.    [(25-30) ʸâ C] 쾢¡ ȢШ Ģ á Ȩ š. OTEC Ө¢ 쾢 , Ǣ ̨ 15 ʸâ C Ţ¡ .  ¡ μ Ţ ʨ 100 MW 쾢 , Kwh ɢ 2.9 [7 yen/Kwh (6 US cents/Kwh)] š 츢 .   ɢ ¢ Ģš Ȣθ. 

1981 Ţɡ ȢШ Ƹ áâ 째 Ģɡ [Dr. Michael Kalina] Ҿ "Ģɡ Ǣ" [Kalina Cycle] ɢ¡- Ȣ¢ [Working Fluid in Heat Exchanger] ӾӾ .  Ǣ , ҽ ԧá [Uehara] ԧá Ǣ [Uehara Cycle] ȢӸ .  Ģɡ Ǣ 5% [Thermal Efficiency] Ţ , ԧá Ǣ 1%-2% ¡ 6%-7% !  1997 ɢ Ƹ, ȢШ ܼ , ԧá Ǣ 1 MW OTEC ʨ , 2000 Ģ .  ۨ Ȣ Ȣ¡ɡ, 25 MW, 50 MW OTEC . 

Ш 쾢 Ǣ ɸ

Ш 쾢 Ǣ Ţ , , ɸ !  ӾĢ Ȣ¢ !  Ÿ ӾĢ š!  !  èĸǢ ʾ , ̾ , !  ҿâ ġ Ĩ Ҹ, Ţ, ǡ !  â â쾢 Ш¸ [US Dept of Energy] Ţ ʧɢ [Titanium] ġ ġ, ɢ Ĩ [Aluminium Alloy], Ĩ [Copper Alloy] ¡ ġ ȢŢ츢!  ¢ ̧ǡâ [Chlorination] ¡ ɡ, 측 [Biofouling & Corrosion] Ȣ [Heat Exchangers] и ź â츢!  ¢ θ Ƣ, Ȣ [Replacement] âġ!  ȢǢ [Retubing] âġ! 

ġ ġ 쾢 Ǣ [Tidal Power Station] " " [Capacity Factor (20%-35%)] 쾢 Ǣ ̨!  Ч " " [Efficiency 25%] ̨! ý ¡ Ģ , [High, Low Tides] Ө š Ȣ !  , Ĩ , Ţ ׸ [Water Gates] .  Ģ Ģ Ƣ¡ á, Ȩ.  Ģټ ɢ¢ ¡.  ¢ 15 Ӿ 40 Ũ , Ģ ̨!  " á" 1997 Ҿ θ , Ǣ 츢, 츢 , Ģ Ȣ 쾢 ź ! 

:

1. A Special Report on Energy By: The National Geographic Magazine [Feb 1981]
2. Ocean Tidal Technical, Frequently Asked Questions (www.poemsinc.org) [March 2003]
3. Harvesting Energy from Tides By: Stuard Baird M.Eng., M.A.
4. Tokyo Report on Ocean Wave Energy Conversion Projects [April 23, 1998] 
5. Energy from the Ocean [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)] 
6. Report on Ocean Power Technologies, New Jersey, USA.
7. Development of Electric Power Plant from Ocean Wave Energy [www.kordi.re.kr/eng]
8. Ocean Thermal Energy, Dept of Ocean Mechanical Engineering, National Fisheries University, Japan. 
9. National Institute of Ocean Development, The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) Tamil Nadu, India. 

jayabarat@tnt21.com  [S. Jayabarathan]


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