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â:..â                                    Editor: V.N.Giritharan
2004 59 -
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ȢŢ!
⢠ǢĢ 쾢  
[Electrical Energy from Solar Power] 

. þ B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear), ɼ 

š ⢠!
ĸ ⢠!
츼 !
ø , Ǣ  
Ȣ 
ø ⢠!
Ţ þ¡ (Ǣ )

Solar Powerۨ: θǢ ¢ â, â¢, âš [Fossil Fuels] Ȣ ġ! ԧɢ, â ĸ Ǣ ġ! 쾢 ȡ ̨Ȩ , Ũ [Geothermal], â, , ø , ø Ȣ Ȩ Ȣ 쾢 Ţ! ĸ š 2000 θ â쾢 â ô Ţɡ¢ ž â 쾢 츢 á¡ ڸȡ! ¢ ¢ â Ţ 쾢¢ , ĸ 쾢 Ũ 10,000 á 2003 â "ĸ â쾢" Ƣ [Renewable Energy World Magazine] â Ħ [Eric Lysen] ؾ¢츢ȡ. 

â 쾢 ŽШ 󧾡 . 2000 ĸ θǢ "⢠Ǣ Ш¸" [Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems] 1000 š (MWp) ﺢŢ! ĸ θǢ Ǣ , ̸ [PV Cells & Modules] Ȣ 33% ռǢ ո ! ĸ θ 2002 ﺢ , 69 š (MWp) Ȣθ. Ģš, ¡ â á , ⢠Ǣɨ 쾢¡ ƢШ Ţ ¢ ! ɡ â 쾢 ŽШ , 쾢 ȡ̨ ھ ¡ ⢠! м â Ǣ 쾢¢ 12%-15% [Production Efficiency] Ȣ¾, Ţ ! Ǣ ¡â , Ȣ ؾ "츽Ҹ" [Rejections] ¡ž, [Mass Production] ո. 

á Ǣ â 쾢

Solar Powered Furnace ɢ , ¢â, ¢â ¢š ھ Ǣ â ! Ģ θǡ Ǣɨ Ǣ¡츢 â Ģ θ Ǣ Ǣ Ĩ ! Ǣ ⢠Ǣ [A wide Spectrum of Rays] ⧸ Ţظ! ⢠Ǣ¡ 쾢 š! â¢Ģ ⧸ š 15 쾢, ɢ á â쾢 Ǩ Ţ ¡! â 쾢 , Ǣ Ģ Ģ Ţž, â 쾢 â¡ 쾢¡ ž ź¡ . м , ź, ɢ, Ծ, Ǣ ھ , , , , , ھ [Humidity Change] ⢠¡ ž ¡ 츢. ġ âĢ Ӹ Ţ׸Ǣ Ȣ â, ɢ Ǣ, Ģ 쾢 ĸ θ Ũ Ө . 

⧸ Ȣﺢ ⢠Ǣ 쾢 ǡ : 4000X10^12 kWh θ! Ţ è : 700X10^12 kWh ! ĸ θǢ ƢǢ 쾢 : 0.07X10^12 kWh [0.01%] Χ! 10,000 ! â Ǣ, â Ǣ¡ Ȩ ¡, 쾢 ; Ǣ Ȣ Ǣ Ǣš, 츧š, ţθ ݼ Ȣ Ǣ¡ 츧š . ɡ â 24 쾢 Ǣ ¡. ý Ӿ š ɢ θǢ â ¢ Ţ! â á Ǣ¡,  , 쾢 Ţ. ġ â 쾢 â ɢ Ө¢ ! šâ , ˺ ﺢ ɢ , â ź . 

â 쾢 Ȣ Өȸ

Solar powered home93 Ģ Ǣ ⢠쾢 ? â Ǣ ʸ Ţ ġ. Ǣ Ţ ŢŨ Ǣ ġ. âɨ Ȣ 쾢 ġ. ¢ [Magnifying Lens] á â Ǣ ĸǢ Ţ ɡ Ȣ Ũ 츢ȡ. ⢠쾢 [Radiation] 쾢 ӨȸǢ . 19 ȡ ھ¢ á Ţﻡɢ â Ǣ 쾢¡ Ȣž Ȣ . ȡ Ƣ Ţ þ ӨȸǢ, â Ǣ 쾢¡ Ȣ  . Ӿ Ө: "Ǣ " [Photovoltaic System] â [Solar Cells] â Ǣ á 쾢¡ . Ө: "â " [Solar Thermal System] Ө¢ â Ǣ쾢 쾢¡ . 

1839 Ţﻡɢ , պ ġǢ Ǣ , Ȣ [Electric Current] Ũ ! ¾ â Ǣ [Solar Cell or Photovoltaic System] ɡ  . Ģ [Purified Silicon] 츼 ġ [Semiconducting Materials] â ǡ . ġ ¡ ɢ ɢ Ҹ [Electronic Properties] ! ӨɸǢ, 쾢 [Electric Fields] . Ǣ Ţ , ġĢ á Ǣ. 쾢 ¢ ɡ .
Ǣ θ ĢȢ ¡ ! â Ǣ  Ţ ¢! ȡ Ţ , ž! ӾĢ 측 ɡ 1% ţ [1% Efficiency Rate] Ǣ 쾢¡ Ȣ! ɡ ܼǢ 28% , š ã¡ 14% ! ɢ ɢ¡ ҸǢ [Modules] Ǣ [Arrays] Ţ θ. 

ĸ θǢ â 쾢 

á Ȣ 52 ƢШ ŸǢ á â Ш¸ [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA)] 20 Ţ򾢨 츢 . á θ 2010 ĸž 3000 š (MWp) Ȣ Ȩ ﺢŢ Ȣ θ! áŢ 100,000 Ҿ Ƣ š ! ɢ 1970 Ӿ â 쾢 񼡸 1993 "Ҿ â Ǣ" [New Sunshine Project] ! â Ǣ 쾢 Ӿ Ӿġ Ӹ Ģ â [Polycrystal Silicon Solar Cells] ¡â Ĩ [Manufacturing Cost: 1/40] 40 ̨! ɢ â Ǣ ġš Ÿ 7500 [Facility Cost: 7500 US $/kW] , : [0.58 US $/kW] Ȣθ. ġ 39 ġš 330 â Ҽ [Provincial Power Grid] ! 

â â쾢 Ш¸ [US Dept of Energy (DOE)] , â â쾢 ҽ â [Jeffrey Mazer], "Ģ Ȣ (Crystalline Silicon Technology) θ ġ Ţ  " ھиȡ. â 쾢 ƢШ¢ â측, , θ ¡ þ 츢. ¡Ţ 500,000 "â Ҹ" [Solar Cookers] ո. ĸ â "â " [Solar Cooking Venue] ¢ ǡ 15,000 ¡ Ǣ ո! 

â측, á Ǣ 15,000 ġ Ǣ [Vacation Homes] â Ǣ θ Ǿ Ȣ θ! м Ǣ BIPV [Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)] Ħ Ţ ո. ţθ ܨø , , ġ BIPV â θ θ. 30 ռ BIPVs ɢ¢ 3000 ţθǢ , ɢ 70,000 Ҿ Ǿ Ȣθ. 

1958 Ǣ ½ , â측 ӾӾġ â Ǣ Ȣﺢ Ǣ , ĸ Ȣ Ш째 Ȣ ʧ¡ 츢. Ȣ Ţ 츢 [Power Calculators], ʸ ȡ ɨ. â Ţ ţ, Ţ Ǣ ڸ. Ǣ ̾Ǣ šâ ҸǢ [Power Utility Grids] â 쾢 ! 

1960 á ġŢ [Odeillo, France] š "â Ψ" [Solar Furnace] ĸ â ! Ţ ŢǢ Ǣ [NASA's Space Shuttles] ź θ [Heat-Resistant Tiles] . â측Ţ á â쾢 ܼ [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado] ţ â Ψ¢ âɨ 츢 21,000 â쾢 Ө! Ţɡ 550,000 C [Ģ ʸâ F] â Ψ ġ 츢 Ĩ [New Alloy] Ĩ Ԩ! 

1984 Ģɢ¡ â Ǣ¢ [California's Carrizo Plain] â Ǣ [Solar Thermal Systems], â측Ţ Ǣ Ȣ ո. â Ǣ á ġ, Ӹ ӨȸǢ [Indirect Conversions] 쾢¡ 쾢¡ ո. â ӨȸǢ θ. ӾӨ, â " " [Flat Plate Collector System]. Ө: â "Ţ " [Concentrator Collector System]. Ӿ â Ө ţ , ݼ, Ǣ , Ǣ , н θ. 

Ө¡ â Ţ š Ȣ Ƣ ¡ θ. â Ǣɨ Ţ áǢǢ [Reflectors] 츢 Ţ. U- θ [U Shaped Parabolic Troughs], Ƣ Ũ [Concave Parabolic Dishes], Ģ¡ ʸ [Flat Mirrors (Heliostats)] ¨ áǢǡ θ. áǢ Ţ â , ¢ ݼ ׸. 

1982 š Ģɢ¡Ţ Ӿ â [Solar-I] 1818 Ģ¡ ʸ Ǣ þĢ, 250 쾢 Ţ 3600 C [6500 F] ̸. ġ ¡. ʸ 2400 C [4000 F] Ө. Ģɢ¡Ţ Ÿ â 쾢 [California Solar Power Plants] 측 U- θ [U Shaped Parabolic Troughs] 8000,000 . 

þ Ȣ â Шȸ

ĸ Ȣ , Ȣ Ȣ θǢ š ź šġ ! â ̾ ɢ ⢠Ǣ á Ţ š¢ â Ƣ . á Ǣ â â 쾢 Ģš â쾢 Ш¡ Ţ . ¡ â Ǣ ̾¢ [Photovoltaics (PV) Installed Capacity)] â측, ɢ, θ ¡ ¢ ڸ. 
ɢ þ â Шȸ Ȣ Ǣ θ! "¡ ξ â쾢 측 'þ ڿ â쾢 ' [Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES 2002)] ɢ  Ţ Ţ ž 즸 Ǣ " â ǡ â쾢 ̾¢ [Division of Agriculture & Energy at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI)] þ Ţﻡɢ .. [Dr. M.N. Nahar] ڸȡ! 

â .. ġ ɢ, Ģ â Ǣ ɢ [Tata B.P. Solar Company & Philips India Solar Company] â Ш¢ Ÿǡ ¡Ȣ ո. þ ô . ġ â ¡â Ģ¡, ¡, , á, ɢ, , , , ¢, , â측, ġ ɢ θ . þ â쾢  Ȣ þ , ͼ 25 ɢ¡ ¡â Ÿ Ө, 597,000 â Ҹ [Solar Cookers] Ţ Ȣθ! â 50 ! 15,000 â Ҹ [Giant Solar Cookers] ĸ â¾ վ θ! Ȣ â 򾢸 [Solar Dryers], ¡â â ο 츢 [Solar Water Heaters] þ Ţ ǡ ɸ, Ţξ Ţ¡ ո. âĢ 򾣸â (35-50) Ģ ʿ â "áŢ  " [Water Distillation Solar Stills] þ ¡â θ. â 򾣸â Ģ Ţ¡ θ. 

á Ӿ 140 š [Solar Power 35 MW + Naphtha/Natural Gas Power 105 MW] "â â쾢 ʨ" [Integrated Solar Combined cycle (ISCC)] â ո. â 쾢 ž Ũ [Parabolic Trough Collector Technology] ¡ θ. â ο θ þ Ţ 597,000 ҸǢ 25 Ģ Ģ 60-70 ʸâ C ո. â 츢 [Solar Water Heating Systems] Ž Шȸ 50,000 . Ţ, þ ¡á ո. Ũ 550,000 . ׸Ǣ 츢. Ƣ ܼ: ú, ú Ƣĸ [Chemical & Fertilizer Industries], ܼ [Hospital & Pharmaceutical Plants], , н ĸ [Textile Industries], ĸ [Food Processing Industries], ĸ [Paint Industries], áŢ 򾣸â ͨſ ĸ [Distilled Water Plants for Syrups] ӾĢ. 

Ш â쾢Ǣ Ǣ

â Ȣ , â¢, âš ɢ þ, ȡ̨ 쾢 򾢨 ܼ ⾸ 1000 š Ţ ç 󾧾. ' Ǣ, ' ƦƢ ȡ, ø, , â [Wind Power, Ocean Power, Geothermal & Solar Energy] Ш ƢǢ 쾢, 쾢 , ո ú ɢ¡ Шȸ  񸡽 . ȡ 쾢 ĸ ¢, â 쾢 ĸ ¢ Ţ á 츾¢, 򦾡 š Ţâ ȡ š ! , ȡ ﺢ â Ǣɨ , 쾢, 쾢 ո . ɢ ̾Ǣ ţ째 â â Ǣ , þ â쾢 ! 

1. The Builders - Marvels of Engineering By National Geographic [1992] 
2. Energy By National Geographic A Special Report [February 1981] 
3. Energy for Man From Windmills to Nuclear Power By: Hans Thirring [1976]
4. Man & Energy By A.R. Ubbelohde [1963] 
5. Solar Energy Heats Up (India is Rapidly Developing Solar Energy) By Brook & Gurudev Bhagat [http://cazri.raj.nic.in] [1999] 
6. Tata BP Solar India (Tata Power Company & BP Solar), Philips India Solar Reports
7. Basics of Solar Power By CountryLife Archives [www.i4at.org/countrylife/solarbasics.html]
8. Solar Electric Systems Can Help During Power Outages By Richard Perez & Others [US DOE]
9. Solar Hot Water & Space Heating and Cooling
10 Advanced Nation in Natural Energy Technology - Japan [October 2000]
11 BP Solar Company Report [June 2003]

jayabarat@tnt21.com [S. Jayabarathan] 


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