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2004 54 -
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ż â측Ţ ɢ  
즸 ݨ측ڸ !
(North America's Killer 
Thunderstorm Tornadoes) 

. þ, 
B.E. (Hons),P.Eng (Nuclear),ɼ 

!
ţ򾢨 Ţ !

ܦ Ţ ̨ ! 
- þ¡ - ()

Tornadoۨ:  ݨ측 Ȣθȡ?  â째 ݨ측 ġ!  ¢ 측 ݨ â째 šġ!  š ¢Ģ Ǣ, ġ ӸĢ Լ ŧ ġ ո!  Ģ ĢĢ ݨ측.  ɢ ȧ ݨ 쾢 Ǣ츢!  ﺡ Ȣ ٨ ݨ측 Ȣ ŢŢ Ŧ ¢ !  Ţ ӨȸǢ ɡ â째, 츢ġ, ȡǢǢ ݨ측, â째ɡ վθ!  Ǣ Ĩ â째 Ȣ Ȣ¾ ݨȸȡ ŢŢ츢!  á 츨, 츨 ˦ 츢 ŢŢ Ǣ ݨ! 

ż â측 ݨĢ ̾ š Ţ!  "ݨ " [Tornado Alley] ̾¢ , ݨ측 š Ƣ !  â측 츢 š áâ 1000 ݨ측ڸ Ũ Ǿ !  Ȣ ݨ측ڸ 250 Ÿ , 50 , ¢Ƣ 츢 !  Ȣ ̨ 200 ݨ측ڸ, š 18 ɢ ¢ ! 

1950 Ӿ 1999 Ũ Ȣ ý ŢŢ, 50 ڸ.  ݨġ ռ áâ ý: 80 , 󧾡: 1500 .  Ţâ ɡ, 측 Ш째 Ŀ 񸡽 [Weather Watch Satellites], â Өȸ [Detection Methods], ȢŢ Ҹ, ҽ Ţ [Public Safety Awareness] Ţ ž, ݨ ý 쨸 ո! 

ݨǢ ţ! 

"ݨ ¢ Ȣ ġ!  ţ ġ!" â측Ţ ܼ ⧸ Ŀš, á [Dr. Harold Brooks, National Severe Storms Laboratory Research Meteorologist] ڸȡ.  ݨĢ Ҹ Ȣ Ȣ ҽâ ¡ ¡. ݨĢ ţ [Tornado Alley] վ 셊, Ć, , á, á, ¡š Ǣ, ݨ측 Ҹ !  Ȣ ռ 쨸 .  Ӿġ, 츢 â Ǣ ̾¢, ݨĢ ţ Ǣ ݨ측ڸ 츢. Ǣ çǢ ź [Highest Probability] ݨ 쨸 [Repeatable Annual Tornado Cycle] Ҹ!  ȡ, ݨ ţ ̾Ǣ ݨ측 Ҹ ̨; м Ȣ Ŀ Ǣ ȡ! 

ݨ ţ á츢 ĸ, 슧 Ũ̼ ݨ측ڸ š¢ġ Ţ, ڸȡ, ي [Howard Bluestein].  ħ Ƹ áâ ي.  ݨ ҽ. ź š Ũ " ã" [Jet Stream] .  ̾Ǣ [Low Pressure] 񼡸, 셢 Ũ̼ŢĢ [Moist Air] 츢.  " " [Supercells] [Wind Shear] ڸȡ, ي.

Ǣ Ţ á 1921 Ӿ 1995 Ũ ݨ측ڸǢ Ţ׸ǧ ¡.  Ȣ  ҃ F2,   ݨ측ڸǧ á.  ݨ측 10% 쨸 Ȣ 츾 , ŧ Ҹ ýɨ Ȣ.  ýǢ 67% [Ȣ ] F4, F5  ݨ측ڸǡ Ţ Ȣ .  м Ģ 츢 ŢŢ򾨾 Ǣ Ţ .  Ǣ Ţ 25% Ţ ݨ측ڸ, š ţ¢ 츢 ո. 

â측Ţ ݨ, Ȣ Ÿ

Tornado Damage1989-1998 θǢ 즸 áâ ݨ측ڸ: 셊 168, ǡâ 79, 75, á 58, á 57, ħ 55.  â측Ţ ç ¨!  ġȢ ݨ측 ħ, 셊 ̾Ǣ Ũ θ!  ռ áâ 򾾢 Ȣ, 125 ݨ측ڸ!  1999 3 ȢŢ , ŢƢ 츢 , ݨĢ 40 ¢â, 8000 ţ Ҹ Ȣ θ!  â Ǣ 2003 ݨ측ڸǢ 105 , 1998 ݨ측ڸǢ 130 񼾡 Ȣθ.

ݨ측 Ȣ , θ , Ţ θ.  ڸ 300 Ÿ ¨ .  ú 300 Ӿ Ũ Ţâġ. Ȣ ﺢ ׸ Ĩ Ԩ ݨĢ Ÿ Ш Ǣ!  Ŀ ڸǢ Ÿ ҽá â Ţﻡɢ , [High Tension Cable Towers] 300 Ÿ .  Ţﻡɢ 500 Ӿ 600 Ũ ġ ɢ.  ĢŸ ﺢ Ÿ ܼ Ȣɡ.  ﺢ Ÿ [>300 mph] ¡ɾ, Ţﻡɢ 200 Ÿ ǡ.

" ݨ" [Waterspouts] Ȣ Ǩ, â Ŀ ȢŢ áâ á ġ [Frank Bigelow, U.S. Weather Bureau Meteorologist] 츢ȡ.  Ӿ Ӹ Ũ Ģ Ȣ ո!  Ȣ ར Ţ: 240 . ¢ Ţ: 144 .  Ӹ Ģ Ţ: 840 .  Ģ : 3600 . Ӹ ¢ : 16,000 .  ݨ¢ Ÿ: 1.1 mph. 

ݨ측Ȣ 쨸 â 񧼡 Ȣ¨

Ģ ĢĢ ݨ측.  ž , ڼ š [Hot, Humid Air under overcast Sky] Ӹ â.  š Ȣ Ӹ 츢 Ũ 츢ȡ.  Ǣ ¢ Ȣ ¡ Ȣ Ģ ¢츢ȡ.  â째, 츢ġ, ¢ Ģ , ݨ측Ȣ Ģ Ģ ɣ Ţ ""  Ȣ ¢츢ȡ.  , Ծ Ч Ţ¢ .  ݨ측 츢 , ո!

Ŀ ȢŢҸǢ ʧ¡, ĢŢ ȡǢ, , Ũ Ȣ â쨸 ո.  ݨ측 ը ç Ǣ ȢȢ Ȣ и Ǣ Ǣ .

1. š   ը [Sickly Greenish or greenish Black] Ӹ .

2. Ȣ .

3. Ӹ 󨾸 Ȣ Ÿ š 츢 Ţ .

4. ţ Ƣק Ȣ즸 Ȣ , ¡.  ݨ Ȣ , Ǣ šǢ ¢ , Ţ .

5.  šɢ ţظ .

6. Ţ, Ţ ǡ Ӹ .

7. ݨ측 â쨸 ȢŢ ¢, ɢ [Hail Storm] ž š. š ɢʸ, 츢 θ Ĩ Ȩ ¢ ý â !  Ǣ ɢ ţ, ݨ측 ĿĸǢ š ġ ؾ ġ! 

ɢ Ţﻡɢ ҃ ݨ Ө

, , , ݨ측Ȣ Ÿ § [ 72-318 Ÿ] , ţθ, , Ǣ ¡ ݨ¡θ!  ŧá θ!  Ţ š, ţ¢ š ¡ 츢 ¢ 측 ţ Ȣθ!  ţθǢ ܨø ţ Ȣġ!  ţθ !  ¢ ý , θ ¡ Ծ !  츢 èŧ ͼθ! 

ɢ Ţﻡɢ ¡ ҃ [Theodore Fujita] Ȣ Ÿ Ţ׸ ݨ Ĩ Ĩ [Fujita Tornado Scale] 츢ɡ. 
 

F Ÿ (mph) Ţ 
F-0  <74 mph Ũ  [Ҩ츢, , ]
F-1  >75-112 mph  Ȣ [ܨø Ƣ, š Ȣ]       
F-2  >113-175 mph  [ܨø ̾, Ģ    , â , , š Ţ]
F-3  >158-206 mph  Ţ [¢ ţ, ţθ Ȣ, š ţ, ]
F-4  >207-260 mph  [ ţθ ]
F-5  >261 mph   [ Ţ׸] 
 ݨ측 Ţ θ?

Tornado Damage ݨ측 񼡸?  츢ġ ڸǢ è , ݨ측.  ý ຢ Ӿ, Ǣ Ũ [Winter Storm] ¡ .  ġȢ Ȣ ݨ측 Ţ ġ [Severe Thunderstorm] ڸ.  ź ¢ ھ ݨ측ȡ ڸ! ǡ ž , ӾĢ Ӹ 򾢧 θ.  ظ ݨ¨ š̸.  ¢ Ÿ, ¡ , ӸĨ , ¡측 ç츢 ̸.  ¡측 ӸĢ .  򾨸 ݨ Ţ 츢 Ţи!

è ɢ Ǣ¢ [Tropical Zones] ġ, Ӹ Ģ [Thunderstorms] šҸ .  ż â측Ţ ĸ򾢧 ݨ ǡ վθ.  š ź Ȣ . 셢 Ũ̼Ţ â Ӿ ݨ측 ź, ɢ Ǣ ż 츢 . 

¡ ݨ š.  Ţ¡ Ǣ 񼡸ġ!  ɡ ּ Ӹ ȡ, Ÿ š 4 Ӿ Ÿ 70 Ũ !  ŢŢ 񽢨 ܼ ġ! 

ݨ : ¢ , ¢ .  Ţ¡ , â "Ţ 츺쾢¡" [Latent Heat of Vaporization] θ.  Ţ ĸǢ ̾¡ ̾¡ ݨ측 š ź¡.  [Density] Ȣ Ȣ Ǣ ̾¢ 
ͨ 츢 ɢ 츺쾢 [Latent Heat of Ice or Condensation] ǢȢ ̸.  Ȣ [Heat Convection] , Ģ Ÿ â츢! 

, Ţ [Humidity], ȡ , , , ਽ [Strengthening of the Rotating Shaft] Ȩ θ.  Ũ, " 츢ġ" [Mesocyclone] Ȣθȡ.  ҸǢ , ż ̾Ǣ ʸ [Anti-clockwise] 츢 ׸.

츢ġ ݨ šġ.  , Ÿ ¡, ¡ Ӹ ѨƸ.  Ǣ Ȣ Ÿ ӾĢ Ţθ.  Ǣ ¡ Ǣ Ţ ཡ , ̸Ǣ , ġ ġ ڸ.  ý 1000 Ȣ Ÿ 5 , 5000 25 Ÿ ġ.  " " [Wind Shear] , ਽ š̸.

츢 š ݨ

1830 â Ţﻡɢ á [Robert Hare] Ȣ ݨ 񼡸 Ȣɡ.  Ȣ ɢ [Electrical Charges], Ȣ ġ Ǣ ¡ 츢.  ̨ Ţﻡɢ .. [J.C. Peltier] ݨ측Ȣ ɢ Ҹ Ţ츢 ؾɡ.  1887 â á â .. [J.P. Findlay] ݨ ɢ Ţ 149 ý ¢. 

"ݨ측Ȣ " Ţﻡ ؾ ɡ šɢ [Inside the Tornado By: Bernard Vonnegut] š, ͦ ڸȡ. " ȢŢ ġ ̾¢ , Ҿ ţ 𺢨 񼾡 Ȣɡ.  š ݨ측 š츢 ĢĢ ţ͸ Ţ 20 ţ Ũ .  Ģ ţ͸ , Ģ 12 13 ӸĢ θ .  Ҹ , Ǣ¢ Ш ɡ [Electric Power] Ȣ!  츢 ɡ 100 Ģ ġ š [kilowatts] 츢.  1950-1960 θǢ â측Ţ ¡ 쾢¢ Ǩ , 츢 쨸.

100 Ģ ġš 쾢 Ţ򾢧ġ Ģ š ݨ측ڼ 丢Ȣ.  Ш 쾢 ݨĢ Ȣ Ȣ.  Ţɡ .  ݨĢ š ?  ݨ¨ á , Ţ ɢ Ţ׸ ɢǡǡ?  Ţɡ "" Ţ Ȣ. 

Ţ Ŀš [Airlines Meteorologist] , " Ȣ ݨ ּ " ڸȡ. " , ¢ , ¡ ݨ Ģ Ţ .  Ģ 50-100 Ţ, Ţ Шǧ â.  ШǨ Ȣ Ӹ, Ш Ǣ Ţ θ " ȡ. 

ɡ 𺢨 ڸȡ.  ݨ ţ , ţ Ǣ , ¾ , ĸ Ƣ¡, ɧ 𺢨 .  ɡǢ , ݨ측Ȣ !  Ÿ 째 ﺢ, 쨸 Ǣ . [Storm Cellars] Ǣ , ɢ ţ͸ [Electrical Discharges] 츢 , Ã 쨅 [Ozone, Oxides of Nitrogen]  šǡ  Ȣ¨ Ȣ ¢츢ȡ. 

, ħŢ [Tulsa Oklahoma] 츸 [Geophysical Observatory] Ȣ š  .  ݨ 츸 ŢǢ !  Ţ ¢ Ȣ§, ɡ !  셢 Ȣ ܼ áâ [Professor Max Brook, New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology] ׸ â 츢𼾢, ݨ 츢 , 100 [100 ampere] ɡ, Ȣ Ȣ. 

1965 11 [James Weyer] Ģ, ¡Ţ Ȣ ǡ.  ݨ â ǡ, 츢 á 򾾢, Ȣ Χ Ǣ ţ͸ !  ɡǢ¢ Ҹ , ŢǢ , Ţɡ ظ!  θ ݨ¨ ?  ਽ Ⱦ?  Ⱦ?  ¡ɡ Ţ ţ͸ ̸ Ȣ ӨȸǢ Ţ ! 

ݨ측Ȣ ̾ĢĢ ?

ݨ측 Ǣ, Ŀ ȢŢ [National Weather Service] ¡ âŢ â쨸 ɢ ź.  Ӹ 쨸, Ÿ ȢŢ ʧ¡, ĢŢ 츢.  Ģ ţθǢ [Mobile Homes] ź, ɾ и ھ ʼ Ǣ â.  ţθǢ ƨ , ¡ .  ƨȸ ġ ţ , , [Closet], ĸ ġ ǢĨ, ȨȸǢ и.  è, и 츢.  , Ÿ ڸ Ȣ , , Ȣ ġ. 

ݨ Ţ Ţ¡ 셊, ǡâ, , á, ħ, á "ݨ " Ǣ š, Ҿ ɡ, , ã ġ "и " [Tornado Room] Ȣר¡.  è šɡ, ݨ Ǣ Ţ ¢, ġ. 

:

1. Reader's Digest Marvels & Mysteries of the World Around Us [Fourth Prining (1977)]
2. Recent Tornadoes US Killer Tornadoes of 2003 [www.tornadoproject.com/recent/recentts.htm]
3. Top Ten Tornado Lists [www.tornadoproject.com/toptens/topten1.htm]
4. Tornado Safety [www.tornadoproject.com/safey/safety.htm] 
5. Weather Central -Tornadoes [http://home.comcast.net/]
6. When & Where Do Tornadoes Occur? By Keli Trap [www.nssl.noaa.gov/]
[Oct 8, 2001]
7. Spinnng like a Dynamo, The Size of a Twister 
8. Protecting your Home from Twisters
9. Japanese Scientist Fujita - Tornado Damage Scale
10 Cyclones & Tornadoes By Mark Rose & Mike Davis [Nov 3, 2002] 
11 Thunderstorms, Lightning, Tornadoes [www.nssl.noaa.gov/hazard]
 

jayabar@bmts.com [S. Jayabarathan]

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