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â:..â                                    Editor: V.N.Giritharan
2005 64 -
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ȢŢ!
ĸ Ǣ 
(Supercontinent Splitting & Drifts) 

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B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear), ɼ

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â Ũ ׸!
츢 â
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Jayabarathan"⧸ Ģ, Ģ â ȸǢ Ȣ ԧɢ, â ġǢ , ¢ 츢 ʸ!  ĸ Ţ ¡ , Ȣ Ȣ ġ.  Өȸ ¡, âǢ ﺢ Ǩ 츢, ţ ¢  4.5 Ģ θǡ Ȣθ!" É â Ţﻡɢ (1904-1968)   

"Ũ Ȣ ⧸ м, ɢ !  ĸ ¡ â â, Ȣ Ƣ á Ƣ , ¢ ؾ¡ ʸ.  Ƣ ؾ , ¢ !  â ¢ īâ, Ҩ [Erosion & Uplift] Ȣ Ȣ Ȣ " , ţ Ţ Ǣ, á [The Founder of Modern Geology (1785)]

"¢ ̾ ġθ !  Ģ θ Ƣ, ʧ¡ , ̾ǡ â š ,  !" 

⧸ [Crust] [Liquid Core] š  !  Ǣ  ¾,   [Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics] ׸ [Fossil Records] ڸ ھ Ǣ츢" Ń, š [Dr. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)]

"⧸  ¾ [Thory of Plate Tectonics] Ȣ!  Ţ ¢  [Evolutionary Theory], ¾ [Theory of Relativity] Ţﻡ , 츢 !" â Ţ, , â Ţ ܼ [Dr. Maurice Ewing, Dean of American Oceanographers (1906-1974)]

Tectonic Plates of the world.

ۨ:  , ¡, , á, ơ Ӽ ¢ ǡ ǡ âŢ.  â Ȣ ,  ⧸ ¡ ¡ ! 1950 ⧸  ¾ [Global Plate Tectonics], ¢ ̾ ¡ ţ š Ţ, Ţﻡ ĸ զ 𺢨 츢 ¢츢!  ġȢ 4.6 Ģ θǢ Ш Ţ Ȣ [Accordion] , â!  Ǣ Ģ Ч Ҿ и !  ĸ , , ڸ, ׸ ¢?  âĸ, ׸ θ?  ʧ [Marine Fossils] θ?  , Ţ â¡ Ҿ Ţɡ Ǣ 𺢸 и п¾ Ţ̸! 

Ţﻡ 𺢸 Ҹ!

ո ȡ ¡ վ ĸ ¢ š ȡ !  Ģ θ ĸ , Ģ θǡ š  ǡ â ¢ ӾĢ Ţﻡɢ Ţ!  ..1620 ġ Ţﻡ á ӾĢ âʉ ž ɢ á (1561-1626) â측Ţ ̾, â측Ţ ̾ ڼ Ȣ!  θ , Ģ 1912 š Ń [Fossil Examples] š츢 Ŀɡ.

Ȣ Ȣɡ, ¡Ţ ̾¢ ¡ ɢ 츢  𼡸 [Tectonic Plate] վθ!  -Ģ â.  Ģ Ө, ԧú 츢, θǢ , Ģ θǡ ¡ ĸ 󾨾 Ģ θ !  ⧸ Ǣ θ  Ũ Ǣ¢ Ȣ Ţ [Satellites] Ģ 즸 ո! Ţ Ǣ츾â , Ţ Ǣ츾 Ȣ Ũ¨¢ θ!  ¡ɡ ̨ ɡ, ¢ Ǩ, Ÿ 츢 . 

⧸ Ǣ !

Plates Moving

1885 â š Š [Eduard Suess (1831-1914)] Ȣ о:  ǡ â측, â, ¡, Ģ¡, ʸ .  θǢ ġ š [Fossil Fern Glossopteris (Plant)] Ȣ ھ Ţ Ȣɡ.  "šɡ" [Gondwana, a district in India] â.  ¡Ţ šɡ Š ʨ ӾĢ 񼾡, ¨ .  ̾¡ š ż̾¡ Īú¡ [Lauresia] 200 Ģ θ ¡ŢĢ [Pangaea] â󾾡 ɡ Ţﻡɢ Ń Ȣɡ.  ż ̾¡ Īú¡ ż â측, ԧú¡ [á+¡ (¡ Ţ)] ȡ Ń .  ӾĢ Ȣ "¡" â, Ń.  Ƣ¢ ¡ ȡ "ġ " . 

Ǣ  ڸ! 

1912 Ń ո ¡ ¡ Ȣɡ.  â측Ţ 째 Å ̾, â측Ţ ɢ¡ Ũ̼ ¨, ŨǨ 񼾡 θ Ń !  Ţ н¢ ڸ.  Ţ ʸ, ʿ Ţ̸ [Fossil Plants & Fresh-Water Animals] â측, â측, Ģ¡, ¡ Ǣ ɡ.  Ǣ Ţ̸ š ԧ Ţ, ¢츽측 Ǣ Ģ Ƣ ½ ¡ ý Ȣɡ.  Ê Ȣ Ţ [Fossil of Reptile Mesosaurus] â측Ţ Å, â측Ţ 󾾡 Ń ڸ ɡ.

Ńâ ǡ Ţﻡɢ Ũ Ǣ ¡!  ý  ¾ [Theory of Plate Tectonics] ؾ Ţ.  , Ţ ú쾢 â Ţﻡ Ө Ţ Ţ.  Ţ  ¢, ¢ Ȣ ̾ Ţ . ¡á ¢ Ũ 츢ȡǡ?  1850 ż ġ ¢ [Trans-Atlantic Telegraph Cables] , ӾӾĢ Χ Ҩ ĸ .  Ţ ڸ Ȣ. 

ȡθ 1950 á , ġ ҽ [Oceanographers] ɢ Ũ Χ â 40,000 Ǣ Ģ !  򦾡 Χ, Ƣ, ڸ, Ǣ â Ҹ [Lava] !  ׸ ɧš â Ȣ , â!  Ţﻡɢ , ̾ Ţ ġ , ɡ Ƣ Ө¢ Ƣ 츢 Ţġ ! 

 θǢ ¾!

1950 š " ¾" [Theory of Plate Tectonics] Ţﻡ Ө¢ Ţ .  Ҿ Ǣ , - θǢ ҽ, , Ǣ , âĸǢ , ĿǢ  ⧸ Ҿ Ǣš ӾӾ Ţ Ǣ.   ¾ ¡ ڸ?  ¢ ɢ ̸, 쨸¢ ̸ .  򦾡á [Mid-Oceanic Ridges].  Ţ Ȣ ȸ !  ȸ ȢĢ ¡ Ţ̸!  θ , 򾢽 Ţ [Subduction Process] ʧ ġ. θ Ǣ ĸ 񼡸ġ.  Ģ θ Ţ Ȣ Ȣ 󾾡 Ţ θ.  θǢ ҽ¢ Ƣ¢ â ġ.  Ģɢ¡ Ŀ ̾¢ â¡ [San Andrea Fault] â ا!

â Ţ Ȣ  Ţ!

â Ţ ҽ â Ţ Ń ¾ ټ ھɡ.  Ȣ¨ :

1. šǢ ţ ¢ 𧼡 ¡ 𧼡 !  ȸ ɢ ׸ټ [(40-60) ] â׸ θǡ Ȣ ʧ Ǣ ź [Hot Viscous Mantle] 츢! 

2. θ ĸ Ҹ, ¨ ġ ո ȡ .  200 Ģ θ !  Ţš š [ż â측, â측, â, Ģ¡, ¡, á, ʸ] ׸ š!  Ģ θǡ š ¡ 쨸 ! 
 
3. θ Χ ׸ǢĢ [Deep Fissures in Mid-Ocean] ȸǢ Ө ̾Ǣ !  ¢ Ţ Ǣ Ģ Ӿ Ũ θ θ!

4. ¢ Ȣ θ , Ţ Ţ׸ . 

a) [Granite] š, â 측 [Basalt] , [Titanic Bulldozer] 츢 ڸ!  ȸ ո Ţ, Ţ ̸ ¢ Ģ θǡ !  , ӨɸǢ Ţ, Ţ ɡ ¡ ظ!

b) ʧ 򾡸 Ţ, Ө¢ 񼧾 Ƣ [Ocean-Floor Tench] ̸!  á ո, ¢ Ţ ¡ ڸ.  츢 [Lava] ¢ ШǸ 츢 â¡ Ȣ Ǣ¡! 
 
c) , , 򾢽, , [Collision, Subduction, Shearing, Separation]  ׸ [Seismic Disturbances] Ĩ . 

()

:
1. The Continental Mosaic -Reader's Digest Atlas of the World [1987]
2. Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Earth By Peter Smith [1985]
3. Earth's Restless Crust -ABC's of Nature, Reader's Digest [1984] 
4. The Long Journey of Continents By: Ronald Schiller -The Marvels & Mysteries of The World Around US, Reader's Digest Publication [1972]
5. Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics [www.zephryus.co.uk/geography/home.html] (Mar 20, 2003)
6. Pangaea, Gondwana, Laurasia, Plate Tectonics, Alfred Wegener From: Wikipedia Encyclopedia 
7. Theory of Continental Drift By: Jim Cornish, Newfoundland, Canada (Sep 2001)
8. Continental Frift, Geology & Oceanography. [Several Internet Articles]
9. Everyday Geography By: Kevin McKinney (1993)
10 Eduard Suess, Austrian Scientist From: Wikipedia Encyclopedia

jayabarat@tnt21.com [S. Jayabarathan (February 21, 2005)]


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