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2004 56 -
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ȢŢ!
þ Ȣ  
ȡ 쾢 Шȸ! 
[Giant Wind Power Development in India] 

. þ B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear),ɼ

¡  
Ţ¡ !  
츢ɢ   
̾ 츢ɡ !

쾢¢ Ǣ !

Winb Power ĸ Ǣ Ը, Ϻ쾢 Ը , 50 θǡ Ƣ ¢ θǢ, θǢ ƢШȸ Ţ Ţâ, 쾢¢ ո Ţ! Ը , "ţ째 ɢ" ͧġ 츢 , 쾢 ȡ̨ Ţâ ! Ҿ ƢШ Ÿ â, , š Ǣ¢ ͸ Ţ " â쾢 " [Non-polluting Energy Source] !  ׸Ǣ Ţǧ " 쾢 Ը" Ţ!  ȡ Ǣ Ȣ ¢ 쾢 [Renwable Energy] ȡ 쾢 [Wind Power] ĸ ȡ̨ Ũ ո!

ȡ 쾢 쾢¡ Ҿ Ш! ţ Ȣ Шȸ .  5000 θ , ţ ̸ ¾ ġڸǢ Ȣθ.  ɡ ɢ [Windmills] ¡â . ơ ȡ ¡Ţ [Persia (Iran)] Ӿ Ӿ ¡ 󾾡 â. 13 ȡ Ȣ á Ѩ Ţ ӨȸǢ ɡ .  ̸Ǣ , , ¡ . ơ ȡ ȡ ¢ 츢 Ÿ, ĸ Ƣ 󾨾 θ ¡!  19 ȡ â측Ţ Ţ 6.5 Ģ , Ũ, â !  

" 쾢 ڸȡ. ڸ 쾢, Ҩ츢 쾢, и 쾢, , .  쾢¢ Ǣ ", ź Ţ Ȣ þ¡ Ȣ Ȣ ڸȡ.  ȡ ̾, " 쾢¢ " ġ!  θǡ ո Ȣ Ш¡ ȡ 쾢 Ш ¸, ո.  ĸ ȡ 쾢 θǢ ¡ .  Ӿ θ: ɢ, â측, ¢, ¨.  Ǣ "" [Module Type] ¡â ŢŢ Ÿ ƢŢȢ, Ȣ , ȡ 쾢 ܼ , ¡ ŧȡ ĸ ¡!

¡Ţ  ȡ Шȸ!

Wind Power in India
ĸ ȡ 쾢 θǢ ɢ, â측, ¢, θ ɾ, ¡ ڸ. 2004 31 Ũ þ Ÿ ȡ 쾢 Ǣ ̾: 2483 MW.  65 MW ¢ ǡ [Demonstration Projects], ﺢ 2418 MW ܼ, ɢ¡ Ш Ÿǡ ո.  쾢 , , 쾢 ӾĢ Ÿ 쾢 âȢ , 1990 ȡ 쾢 Ȣ ɡ θǡ ŢŢ 20 Ǣ 483 Ÿ .  167 [50 ] Ǣ ¡Ţ ȡ 쾢 45,000 MW [Potential Estimation] վ .  2003-2004 ȡ 371 MW Ţ Ÿ , Ȣθ.  Ţ 1.65 MW â !  Ţ 1362 MW ӾĢ  Ǣ츢!  

þ Ǣ 160 쾢 [Potential Wind Power] 46,092 MW θ!  ܼǢ : 5.4%!  95% 쾢 Ȩ ¡ ȢĢ š !  ¡Ţ Ũ Ÿ â ȡ 쾢 : 1.65 MW !  Ģ¢ [Turbine Rotor] Ţ: 270 !  : 260 ! [WEG Model, NEG-Micon].  2004 Ũ Ţ ȡ 쾢¢ ɢ : 14.17 Ģ Kwh!  ¡ þ 5.7 Ģ â â Ţ!  м 92,000 ¡쨅, 64,000 Ã 쨅, 14 Ģ ¡쨅, 8,000 ̸ [Particulates] 측, , ƢҸ 측 Ţ !  2003-2004 WEG ¡â [Wind Electric Generators (WEG)]: 1. Suzlon 219.18 MW  2. Enercon 155.88 MW  3. NEG-Micon 136.35  4. Vestas-RRB 51.40 MW  5. NEPC 37.75 MW  6. Pioneer Wincon 2.25 MW  7. TTG 0.25 MW.  ¢ , ̃á, ç, ç, , áá, ǡ Ȣ .   

þ 283 ȡ 쾢 ܼ 225 Kw-1250 Kw Ģ ո.  87 Ǣ ɡ Ǭ [Micro Survey], Ҹ [Wind Monitoring] , 쾢 Ţ â ɢ¡ ¡á ո.  17 , 3 츢 çǢ Ũ [2004] þ 483 ȡ ܼ [Wind Monitoring Stations] Ţ ո.  208 160 , â 200 watts " " [Wind Power Density] , ȡ ̾ Ȩ Ȣ .  Ǣ "-â" "-˺" " θ" [Wind-Solar, Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems] .  Ǣ ɢ¡ Ÿ " 츨" [Windfarms] 쾢 Ũ ո!

θǢ 쾢 ! 

á Ţ 쾢 ¡ Ǣ!  쾢 쾢¡ 츢ɡ, 53,000 TWh [Tera Watt hours (Tera 1 followed by 12 zeros)] ¡츢 ĸ Ũ !  2010 á θǢ Ȣ째, 60,000 MW !  š 1 MW 쾢 1000 ٨ 350 â !  ĸ Ÿ 23,300 MW , 23 Ģ [, , ţ, ġ θǢ 򦾡 ] 쾢 Ǣ !

2003 ʺ Ũ ĸ ̸Ǣ ȡ 쾢 Ÿ 39434 MW !  á θǢ 2000 Ţ 3500 MW !  á ¡ 쾢¢ 17,000 MW !  쾢 Ģ 40,000 GWh [Giga Watt hour (1 Ȣ 9 ⃢)] ɢ , 10 Ģ â !  Ш ɢ 쾢 Ǣ , 16 Ģ â !  á θ Ţ 쾢 , 24 Ģ ¡쨅 Ǣ Ţ! ɢ Ţ , ż Ģ, Ģ ȡ 쾢 [Offshore Wind Power] !        

á 21 θǢ ȡ ո. θǢ ɢ 14609 MW ɢ¢ !  â측Ţ : 6352 MW; ȡ ¢ : 6202 MW; : 3115 MW.  , ¡: 2120 MW ( 2004).  ¡Ţ Ÿ â ȡ 쾢 : 1.65 MW !  Ģ¢ [Turbine Rotor] Ţ: 270 !  : 260 ! [WEG Model, NEG-Micon].  2001 Ũ Ÿ ȡ 쾢 260. Ȣ : 144 MW.   

ȡ ̾¡ !

ȡ 쾢 ̾ ?  , Ҹ, â â , š ̾ ̾ .  šǢ " " [Wind Funneling] ž, ǡ վ θ.  Ģɢ¡Ţ ȡ ¡ š ç!  áâ 12 Ÿ θ.  14 áâ Ÿ, Ө¢ 쾢 š.  â측Ţ Ǣ ɢ¡ Ш¢ ȡ ǡ.  Ȣ Ÿ ¡.  Ǣ Ǣ ç .  ȡ 쾢, Ÿ Ţ [Wind Power increases as the cube of wind velocity].  Ȣ Ÿ , ڸ!

â측 ȡ Ÿ ڸ.  ĿĸǢ Ȣ Ÿ â .  Ģɢ¡Ţ š¢, Ӿ 짼 Ǣ Ÿ Ǣ ̨ȸ. ý, ɢ ¢ Ţ 츢 ظ.  Ȣ [Density] Ȣ , ĢĢ Ǣ , š ̾¢ ѨƸ. ɡ ȡ, Ǣ ɢ Ţ 츢.  Ģɢ¡ Ǣ [Air Conditioners] ɢ ž, ȡ 쾢 Ũ ʸ.  ȡ Ǣ ɡ ݼ , ¡ 쾢 ȡ .

쾢 ¢ â, ľ Ȣ Ҹǡ, 쾢 ҸǢ Ҹǡ, "" [Efficiency] ڸ.  " " Ȣġ.  Ч Ǣ , ̾ ̨ġ.  "̾ " [Capacity Factor (CF)] Ȣġ.  ̾ 쾢 ¢ "Ǣ " θ.  Ÿ Ŀ ǡڸǡ Ȣ ž ȡ 24 !  áâ, , , Ȣ Ȩ ̾ ̨!  â Ũ Ҹǡ [Power Transmission Grid] ̾ ڸ. ̾ [Capacity Factor (65-80)%] ɢ ġ.
 
Ȣ 쾢 [Kinetic Energy] Ũ 쾢¡ ¡!  Ȣ 쾢 Ũ, Ģ Ȣ ¡!  Ģ¢ Ӿ Ũ ž, Ģ¢ Ǣ׸ ɾ Ÿ Ũ ž, 쾢 Ţ Ţ Ţ!  ĢǢ ¡ 쾢 Ƣɢ [Gear Box] áŢ !  ɢ¢ [Electric Generator] 쾢 Ţ, 쾢 !  󿢸ǡ Ȣ 쾢 Ө [ 쾢 -> 쾢 -> 쾢] Ȣ [Conversion Efficiency (30-40)%] . 

ȡ ! !

Wind Power 쾢 ɡ, â â 쾢¾ [Solar Energy]!  ⢠θǡ š ž, ¢ ¢ɡ Ţ Ÿ, ̸Ǣ ȡ .  ɡ â 쾢 , ɢ쾢!  áâ 12 Ÿ ç ȡ ̾ Ȩ.  Ţ ȡ 쾢 ʨ ո.  1931 ﺢɢ ⊠[G.J.M. Darrieus] ʨ [Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)].  [Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT)].  š [MW] ý ȡ Ǣ ɸ [Windfarm] 17 .  ɡ Ţ̸Ǣ š쨸 ġ!  Ȩ ȡʸǢ âġ! 

š Ţ [95%] Ÿ .  ý â ȡ Ȣ Ţ: 200 !  : 160 !  ĸ â ȡ¢ Ţ Ţ !  , ȡ .  쨸¢ 5% ǧ ǡ Ÿ .  ý ȡ¢ Ţ 50 ʧ; : 100 .  š Ҹ, Ҹ .  Ȣ ž, á Ӹ , Ģ .  Ȣ Ǣ š .  â Ǣ 쾢 .  ɡ , 򾢨 .  ȡ Ǣ ɢ Ǿ, áâ Ǣ .
  
â측Ţ ո ȡ Шܼ!

â측Ţ 18,000 ȡ â!  ġ ɾ Ģɢ¡ 쾢 쾢¡ ȢШ¢ ɽ¢ !  Ģɢ¡ ĸ ȡ 쾢 ¢ 75% âȢ, θ Ƣ ġ !  Ө¢ Ģɢ¡ 2.8 Ģ ¡쨅 [CO2], 16 Ģ Ƣ׸ [Pollutants] â, âš 츨 â측 Ţ츢!  Ģɢ¡Ţ "ȡ Ǣ" [Wind Farms] Ȣ Ţ ¡ , á â â ̾ !  ɡ šâǢ [Electric Utility Companies] ¡ ŧ Ţ Ģɢ¡ Ш ̸ ո! 

â측Ţ 95% ȡ š, š, ɢ¡ [Altamont Pass, Tehachapi Pass, San Gorgonio] ̸Ǣ Ÿ . á 째 30 ݼ 츢 ĸ 쨸 ȡ Ÿ . 1991 š¢ 80 ȡ 800 Ģ Kwh ɢ 130,000 âȢ.  Ţ [Majavi Desert] , š ̾¢ 5000 ȡ ո!  2000 Ȣ 14,000 ȡ Ģɢ¡ 3600 Ģ Kwh ȡ 쾢 [ ¢ 1.27%] âȢ .  á â Ǣ Ĩ Ԩ! 

ȡ Ţ 7000 , (40-750)Kw Ǣ ɢټ ո.  ȡ [Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine].  θǢ Ţ: 149 !     
쾢 ܼ [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] 1980 ȡ 쾢 Ţ ţ, ̨ Ţ! 1993 Ţ ţ Kwh ɢ 7.5 .  측 Ȣ ǡ, Ţ ţ ɢ 3.5 Ȣ !  , á ¢ [Traverse City, Michigan], 144 Ţ Ģ 160 , â측Ţ â ȡ 쾢 վθ. 15 Ÿ Ȣ ȡ 200 , á 1.2 Ģ Kwh ɢ 쾢 âȢ ո! 

ȡ 쾢 Шȸ Ҹ Ǣ츢. 1900 θǢ Ģɢ¡ ȡ ȢШ ɢǢ 1200 Ҹ, 4000 Ӹ Ҹ â Ш [America Wind Energy Association] ȢŢ츢! 1991 Ģɢ¡ ȡ 쾢 Ш Ţ "Ţ" [Investment] 3.2 Ģ á Ȣ θ!  â측Ţ ȡ Ш Ţ¡ š, ø, ż, ɡ, ¡, 셊, ¡š, 쾢, 쾢¡ ¢ Ҿ 츢¡ Ţ¡ ո.

ȡ , â ̾Ǣ , Ž ɢ, ǡ â Ȣ ġ.  â ﺢ šɡ, â [Solar Cells] Ǣ Ȣ ¡ ġ.  ȡ 쾢 ¡ !  ¢ 측 ȡʸ ȡ ɸ ȡ 측 !  .  ǡ ǡ¢, ȡ Ÿ , Ũĸ .

ȡ 쾢 ¢ , !

:
1. š þ 쾢 ž Ȩ, ȡ 쾢 .
2. ȡ , , 측 ! 
3. Ƣ¡ ľ , ȡ Ш¸.
4. [Modular Equipment] ¡â ž, ȡ 쾢 Ÿ , Ǣ ʸ.  ɢ , , áâ Ǣɨ.
5. â, â¢, âš ľ Ţ , ž.  ȡ Ǣ â [Fossil Fuel] ơ šҸ !  
6. θǢ ú â šý [Tax Credit Benefits] ȡ 쾢 측 Ǣ θ. 

:
1. Ч, Ч á ţͦ ¡.  ȡ¢ Ÿ ž, ȡ ž 쾢 â θ.  â 쾢 [Large Capacity Battery] ¡â , Ũ 쾢 â ħɡ [Solar Cells] Ȣ ˺ ﺢɡ, 쾢 ո .
2. š [MW] ý ȡ Ǣ ɸ [Windfarm] 17 .  ɡ Ţ̸Ǣ š쨸 ġ! â Ȩ ġ¢ ȡʸǢ â¡ âġ!  Ƣ ġ! 
3. ġ¢ 측 Ģ [Low Frequency Noise] ɢ Ш â ġ. 
4. ȡ Ǣ Ǣ "ҽ" [Electric Shorting] Ȣ, ɢ â , Ģ Ǣ Ȣ šҸ âġ!

ШȸǢ ! 

Wind Power θǡ Ţ¡ ȡ ɢǢ 쾢 ! 1975 ɢ Ţ 30 [30 cents/Kwh] , ɢ Ţ 5 [5 cents/Kwh] Ţ!  Ÿ â, âš, â¢, 쾢 Ÿ ɡ , , â , 쾢 ɢ Ȣ ž!  áâ 12 Ÿ ţ , â츨, ȡ , Ǣ !  Ǣ, Ũ̼Ǣ ȡ 쾢 , 쾢 Ȣ ո !  Ģ á ĸǢ 쾢 , 쾢 ȢШ Ţ !

2010 á ȡ 쾢 򾢨 2000 MW ո.  Ģɢ¡Ţ 쾢 Ȩ [Windpower Capacity] 1600 MW .  Ÿ Ƣ, Ÿ Ţ [Gear Box & Controller Design] ¨ 10% ¡ ž, ȡ 쾢 ¡ ž 2020 , â측Ţ 25% 򾢨 쾢 Ǣ ھ¡!  1970, 2004 θǢ ⢠, 1979 â , 1986 ĸǢ Ţи , Ĩ, [Triple Ws (Wind, Wave, Water)] ¨ Ǣ , 쾢 ĸ Ţ!  2012 þ š 10,000-15,000 MW , 240,000 MW ȡ 쾢 Ȩ Ǣš â!  

:
1. Marvels of Engineering By National Geographic [1992]
2. Wind Energy in California [Jan 15, 2003]
3. Milestones in the History of Wind Power, U.S. Dept of Energy [www.eia.doe.gov/] 
4. Wind Power Installed Capacity in India [Mar 31, 2004]
5. State of the Art of Wind Technology [May 27, 2004]
6. Energy Types [www.energy.ca.gov/education]
7. India Ranks fifth amongst the Wind Energy-producing Countries of the World [2004 Report]
8. Directory Indian Wind Power Planned for Publication [2004]
9. The Energy & Resources Institute, Wind Power Sector Paper Presented [July 23, 1999]
10 Another Record Year for European Wind Power [2001-2002] 
11 Centre of Wind Energy Technology Chennai [Wind Source Assessment Unit] (www.cwet.tn.nic.in/WRA.htm)   

jayabarat@tnt21.com  [S. Jayabarthan]


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